Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
February 1, 2012
1
Chapter 11: Design practice for
breakwater cross sections
ct5308 Break...
February 1, 2012 2
Given a quarry:
• Split the rock in three categories
• filter
• core
• armour
you make a berm breakwate...
February 1, 2012 3
permeability/porosity
volumetric porosity: 1 b
v
r
n


    
 
Type and shape of
units
Layer
t...
February 1, 2012 4
layer thickness
50t nt n k D
  2
501t v nN nk A n D
 
number of elements
(A is a given area)
February 1, 2012 5
layer thickness tests
Carlos Bosma, nov 2001
February 1, 2012 6
measuring the top of the layer
Carlos Bosma, nov 2001
February 1, 2012 7
measuring the top
Carlos Bosma, nov 2001
February 1, 2012 8
F1 = 0.275 Dn
F3 = 0.740 Dn
F3a (sphere) = 0.462 Dn
F3a (pin) = 0.667 Dn
Volumetric layer thickness:
F2...
February 1, 2012 9
Heavy aggregates Normal
concrete
Heavy density
concrete
Density in air (t/m3) 2.4 4.0
Density in water(...
February 1, 2012 10
Sines breakwater (110 ton Antifer
blocks)
February 1, 2012 11
breakwater and berms
high berm
berm at msl
February 1, 2012 12
definition sketch of cross section
high or low crest
crest design
rock or concrete armour
tolerances t...
February 1, 2012 13
overtopping
light overtopping (with cap)
light overtopping
moderate overtopping
moderate overtopping
(...
February 1, 2012 14
various toe solutions
classic solution
dredged trench, gravel
dredged trench, geotextile
no excavation...
February 1, 2012 15
monolithic
breakwater
New PIANC guidelines
available
February 1, 2012 16
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Chapter 11: Design Practice of Breakwater Cross Sections

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11. Design Practice of Breakwater Cross Sections

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Chapter 11: Design Practice of Breakwater Cross Sections

  1. 1. Vermelding onderdeel organisatie February 1, 2012 1 Chapter 11: Design practice for breakwater cross sections ct5308 Breakwaters and Closure Dams H.J. Verhagen Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences Section Hydraulic Engineering
  2. 2. February 1, 2012 2 Given a quarry: • Split the rock in three categories • filter • core • armour you make a berm breakwater • Split the rock in many categories you may define more layers
  3. 3. February 1, 2012 3 permeability/porosity volumetric porosity: 1 b v r n          Type and shape of units Layer thickness n Placement Layer coefficient kt Porosity nv Source Smooth quarry stone 2 Random 1.02 0.38 SPM Very round quarry stone Random 0.80 0.36 Cur/Ciria Very round quarry stone Special 1.05 – 1.20 0.35 Cur/Ciria Semi-round quarry stone Random 0.75 0.37 Cur/Ciria Semi-round quarry stone Special 1.10 – 1.25 0.36 Cur/Ciria Rough quarry stone 2 Random 1.00 0.37 SPM Rough quarry stone > 3 Random 1.00 0.40 SPM Irregular quarry stone Random 0.75 0.40 Cur/Ciria Irregular quarry stone Special 1.05 – 1.20 0.39 Cur/Ciria Graded quarry stone Random - 0.37 SPM Cubes 2 Random 1.10 0.47 SPM Tetrapods 2 Random 1.04 0.50 SPM Dolosse 2 Random 0.94 0.56 SPM Accropode 1 Special 1.3 0.52 Sogreah Akmon 2 Random 0.94 0.50 WL
  4. 4. February 1, 2012 4 layer thickness 50t nt n k D   2 501t v nN nk A n D   number of elements (A is a given area)
  5. 5. February 1, 2012 5 layer thickness tests Carlos Bosma, nov 2001
  6. 6. February 1, 2012 6 measuring the top of the layer Carlos Bosma, nov 2001
  7. 7. February 1, 2012 7 measuring the top Carlos Bosma, nov 2001
  8. 8. February 1, 2012 8 F1 = 0.275 Dn F3 = 0.740 Dn F3a (sphere) = 0.462 Dn F3a (pin) = 0.667 Dn Volumetric layer thickness: F2 + 0.14 Dn + 0.37 Dn = F2 + 0.51 Dn Measured layer thickness: 0.275Dn + F2 + 0.278Dn = F2 + 0.553 Dn Difference: 0.043 Dn Carlos Bosma, nov 2001
  9. 9. February 1, 2012 9 Heavy aggregates Normal concrete Heavy density concrete Density in air (t/m3) 2.4 4.0 Density in water(t/m3) 1.4 3.0 10 tonnes in water (m3) 7.14 3.33 In air this corresponds to (tonnes) 17.14 13.32 Volume decrease when using Heavy density concrete 55% Decrease of weight in air 22% @325 kg/m3 – total cement required for 10 tonnes 3220 1082 Decrease in cement consumption for 10 tonnes of weight 1238 1082 Decrease in cement consumption in % 55%
  10. 10. February 1, 2012 10 Sines breakwater (110 ton Antifer blocks)
  11. 11. February 1, 2012 11 breakwater and berms high berm berm at msl
  12. 12. February 1, 2012 12 definition sketch of cross section high or low crest crest design rock or concrete armour tolerances toe berm armour layer core crest filter first under layer
  13. 13. February 1, 2012 13 overtopping light overtopping (with cap) light overtopping moderate overtopping moderate overtopping (with cap) severe overtopping
  14. 14. February 1, 2012 14 various toe solutions classic solution dredged trench, gravel dredged trench, geotextile no excavation, geotextile and increased berm
  15. 15. February 1, 2012 15 monolithic breakwater New PIANC guidelines available
  16. 16. February 1, 2012 16
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