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Chapter 11: Design Practice of Breakwater Cross Sections

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11. Design Practice of Breakwater Cross Sections

11. Design Practice of Breakwater Cross Sections

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  • 1. Chapter 11: Design practice forbreakwater cross sectionsct5308 Breakwaters and Closure DamsH.J. VerhagenFebruary 1, 2012 1Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesVermelding onderdeel organisatieSection Hydraulic Engineering
  • 2. Given a quarry:• Split the rock in three categories • filter • core • armour you make a berm breakwater• Split the rock in many categories you may define more layersFebruary 1, 2012 2
  • 3. permeability/porosity   volumetric porosity: nv  1   b    rType and shape of Layer Placement Layer Porosity Sourceunits thickness coefficient nv n ktSmooth quarry stone 2 Random 1.02 0.38 SPMVery round quarry Random 0.80 0.36 Cur/CiriastoneVery round quarry Special 1.05 – 1.20 0.35 Cur/CiriastoneSemi-round quarry Random 0.75 0.37 Cur/CiriastoneSemi-round quarry Special 1.10 – 1.25 0.36 Cur/CiriastoneRough quarry stone 2 Random 1.00 0.37 SPMRough quarry stone >3 Random 1.00 0.40 SPMIrregular quarry stone Random 0.75 0.40 Cur/CiriaIrregular quarry stone Special 1.05 – 1.20 0.39 Cur/CiriaGraded quarry stone Random - 0.37 SPMCubes 2 Random 1.10 0.47 SPMTetrapods 2 Random 1.04 0.50 SPMDolosse 2 Random 0.94 0.56 SPMAccropode 1 Special 1.3 0.52 SogreahAkmon 2 Random 0.94 0.50 WLFebruary 1, 2012 3
  • 4. layer thickness t  n kt Dn50 number of elements N  n kt A 1  nv  D 2 n 50 (A is a given area)February 1, 2012 4
  • 5. layer thickness testsFebruary 1, 2012 Carlos Bosma, nov 2001 5
  • 6. measuring the top of the layer Carlos Bosma, nov 2001February 1, 2012 6
  • 7. measuring the topFebruary 1, 2012 Carlos Bosma, nov 2001 7
  • 8. F1 = 0.275 Dn F3 = 0.740 Dn F3a (sphere) = 0.462 Dn F3a (pin) = 0.667 Dn Volumetric layer thickness: F2 + 0.14 Dn + 0.37 Dn = F2 + 0.51 Dn Measured layer thickness: 0.275Dn + F2 + 0.278Dn = F2 + 0.553 Dn Difference: 0.043 Dn Carlos Bosma, nov 2001February 1, 2012 8
  • 9. Heavy aggregates Normal Heavy density concrete concreteDensity in air (t/m3) 2.4 4.0Density in water(t/m3) 1.4 3.010 tonnes in water (m3) 7.14 3.33In air this corresponds to (tonnes) 17.14 13.32Volume decrease when using Heavy 55%density concreteDecrease of weight in air 22%@325 kg/m3 – total cement required for 3220 108210 tonnesDecrease in cement consumption for 10 1238 1082tonnes of weightDecrease in cement consumption in % 55% February 1, 2012 9
  • 10. Sines breakwater (110 ton Antiferblocks)February 1, 2012 10
  • 11. breakwater and berms high berm berm at mslFebruary 1, 2012 11
  • 12. definition sketch of cross sectionhigh or low crest tolerances toe bermcrest design armour layer corerock or concrete armour crest filter first under layerFebruary 1, 2012 12
  • 13. overtopping light overtopping (with cap) light overtopping moderate overtopping moderate overtopping (with cap)February 1, 2012 13 severe overtopping
  • 14. various toe solutions dredged trench, geotextileclassic solution no excavation, geotextile anddredged trench, gravel increased berm February 1, 2012 14
  • 15. monolithic breakwater New PIANC guidelines availableFebruary 1, 2012 15
  • 16. February 1, 2012 16