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CT4410: Irrigation and tradition
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CT4410: Irrigation and tradition



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  • 1. Analyzing irrigationCT4410December 14, 2011 1
  • 2. Clemmens The performance of large-scale irrigation projects worldwide has been disappointing to the international community. Continued poor performance could limit our ability to provide food and fibre for a growing, more affluent world population. Improvement in the productivity of large irrigation systems is a key component to assuring future adequate food and fibre supplies. This paper discusses the reasons for poor performance of these schemes and proposes a method to improve their performance. A main problem is that operation of these irrigation systems is not tied to productivity. As a result, the dispersive nature of these large open canal distribution systems causes extreme variability in water delivery service to users. The remedy is to break the system down at key intermediate locations within the network and to improve physical and administrative control at those locations. 2
  • 3. Molden et al 3
  • 4. Typical concepts applied 4
  • 5. The need for good descriptors of an irrigation system 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. Office du Niger December 14, 2011 8 Water Resources Management
  • 8. 9
  • 9. 10
  • 10. Trip: Markala, the middle of nowhere 11
  • 11. Trip: Office du Niger 12
  • 12. Let’s take a look 13
  • 13. Barrage de Markala 14
  • 14. Trip: crossing the barrier (2) 15
  • 15. First irrigation scheme in Office duNiger 16
  • 16. what schemes did I expect?• ORM pic 17
  • 17. What structures did I expect? 18
  • 18. Primary channel into Office du Niger 19
  • 19. 5 km into Office du Niger 20
  • 20. Primary division structures 21
  • 21. Guess who designed it? 22
  • 22. Secondary division 23
  • 23. The key to water 24
  • 24. 25
  • 25. Why does it look like this? 26
  • 26. 27
  • 27. 20 km into Office du Niger 28
  • 28. Where trees are, is … 29
  • 29. And water leads to … 30
  • 30. Source: 31
  • 31. Surface area in numbers• The Netherlands: 4 200 ·103 ha• Total area OduN: 2 000 ·103 ha• Potential irrigation: 960 ·103 ha• Present irrigation: 093 ·103 ha 32
  • 32. Irrigation in Ghana Maurits Ertsen December 14, 2011 34 Water Resources Management
  • 33. 35
  • 34. 36reservoir dam irrigable fields
  • 35. Small scale irrigation Domestic use Fishing Livestock watering 37
  • 36. 38
  • 37. 39
  • 38. 40
  • 39. 41
  • 40. 42
  • 41. 43
  • 42. 44
  • 43. 45
  • 44. Measured evaporation 46
  • 45. 47
  • 46. 48
  • 47. CONTROLLINGTHE FARMERIRRIGATIONENCOUNTERS INKANO, NIGERIA “I declare it’s marked out just like a large chess-board!” Alice said at last. “There ought to be some men moving about somewhere – and so there are!” she added in a tone of delight, and her heart began to beat quickly with excitement as she went on. “It’s a great huge game of chess that’s being played – all over the world – if this is the world at all, you know. Oh, what fun it is! How I wish I was one of them! I wouldn’t mind being a Pawn, if only I might join – though of course I should like to be a Queen, best.” (Lewis Carroll “Through the looking glass”, quote taken from The complete illustrated works of Lewis Carroll 1993, Chancellor Press; p142-143) 1 Maurits Ertsen Water Management / Civil Engineering and Geosciences
  • 48. A tale of three projects G K MG = GeziraK = KanoM = Mwea
  • 49. The Kano River Project, Nigeria
  • 50. Control in the KRPTenant farmers should be selected for their working abilityand their “calculated capacity to adapt the severe disciplineof two crops per year irrigation farming ”Therefore the Dutch consultant suggested building anorganization “to have the farmers advised and guided in allphases of production ”
  • 51. Because …“ The complexity and the scope of the project on the onehand and the scarcity of skilled and experienced manpower onthe other call for a centralized type of projectmanagement, whereby all decisions on water control, waterdistribution, and most of those on agricultural aspects(cultivation practices, plant protection, fertilizing etc.) are tobe taken or initiated by the project management, atleast in the initial years.”
  • 52. Inheritance 1: Mwea, Kenya
  • 53. Number of warnings in the Mweasystem in 1970/1971 Jul-Sep Oct-Dec Jan-Mar Apr-Jun Total Subject Maintenance of holding 56 140 8 68 272 Absenteeism 17 42 1 23 83Failure to comply with instructions 100 85 23 25 233Unauthorized use of irrigation water 9 39 - 13 61 Unauthorized livestock 3 2 - 2 7 Yield performance - - - 1 1 House construction 11 - 4 - 15 Final warnings 11 18 1 7 37 Total 207 326 37 139 709Source: Veen 1973; 125.
  • 54. And through Mwea: Gezira, Sudan The field personnel was “superimposed like the canal system itself on the life of the Gezira “
  • 55. Irrigationand cropplanningin Gezira
  • 56. Translation of key principles of Gezira to Mwea Gezira Mwea All growers are licensed by theGeneral approach A policy of control and help: Scheme Management, renewably control to ensure adherence to a annually, and are subject to productive system, help to make prosecution and eventual dismissal adherence at each point as easy for failure to comply with as possible Management orders The Settlement handles onlyLand use and farming A planned system of land usage, based on scientific experiment one crop, irrigated paddy, and practical experience, and whose essential operations protected by a tenancy are all vertically interlinked Efficient, active and honest agreement within the Scheme and Board The ratio of field staff to tenantsField staff management staff, whose organization is high, and there are parallel conditions of service offer, as far organizational hierarchies as possible, a long-term interest responsible for water control and in and sympathy with the husbandry advice Each tenant receives the right Legislation to protect the projectTenancy arrangements tenancy against subdivision, to four one-acre irrigation units sub-letting, mortgage or on entry, and is not eligible to foreclosure except by the expand his holding (by the management for a breach of the addition of irregular sized ‘extra tenancy agreement fields’) unless it has been well- managedSource: Adapted from Gaitskell (1959) and Chambers and Moris (1973).
  • 57. Inheritance II: Netherlands East Indies
  • 58. Although it had to be debated upon…• Meter-gate as off-take, with a fixed weir in the secondary canal• Crump weir as off-take, with a control structure operated through stop logs in the secondary canal• An undershot gate as off-take with a Begemann structure in the secondary canal Different approaches related to (colonial) engineering schools
  • 59. In conclusion:Kano as arena for different engineering schools:different technologies Kano as post-colonial modernization effort of African irrigation: shared idea of controlling the farmer
  • 60. But: times had changed“[F]ull level extension workers taught farmers how tomake the most of irrigation technology.”Farmers were also “instructed in the use of new andimproved seed, fertlisers, insecticides and pesticides, aswell as other inputs, in the right quantities and at the righttime in conjunction with irrigation water.”The resulting “[…] inability to discipline non-cooperative farmers is a constant source of frustration tomanagement.”
  • 61. It would never be the same again…