Converging technologies 1_01


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Converging technologies 1_01

  1. 1. Converging Technologies Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Technology - A New Controversy? e:The_Matrix_Poster.jpgKarel MulderJanuary 4, 2010 1
  2. 2. Converging TechnologiesControversies the 19th century- cyclingInsecticidesNuclear energyNuclear weaponsITMeidcal biotechnologyRecombinant DNAWindmillsJanuary 4, 2010 2
  3. 3. Converging TechnologiesControversies- why?Lack of knowledgeTendency to be irrational (based on linear thinking)NO: social sciences indicate other reasons:(Radical) new technologies lead to new normative questioning.Are the risks accaptableDistribution of advantages and disadvantagesHuman metaphysicsJanuary 4, 2010 3
  4. 4. Converging TechnologiesControl DilemmaWhen technology has hardly beeninterpreted it is easy to makeadjustments, but effects are not knownyet. knowledge effectsWhen technology has been widelyimplemented, effects are known but itis very difficult to still makeadjustment. adaptabilityTechnology Assessment:Flexibility built into technology?Trilema due to interactive processes?January 4, 2010 4
  5. 5. Converging TechnologiesValue of ControversiesPublic controversies can contribute to the quality of public decisions.Stakeholders must define their opinions and positions which leads tothe defining of values and standards The sooner an issue becomes controversial, the more can be doneIf in the end no consensus is reached, the issue can become ataboo.January 4, 2010 5
  6. 6. Converging TechnologiesValue of ControversiesThinking about converging is important Nanotechnology 6thCenturyBrewer.jpg Biotechnology Information technology Cognitive scienceHuman applicationsRisk and fears Brewing as an early example of biotechnologyJanuary 4, 2010 6
  7. 7. Converging TechnologiesNano Technologies- The Challenge1959 - Richard Feynman,Plenty of Room at the Bottom When we get to the very, very small world - say circuits of seven atoms - we have a lot of new things that would happen that represent completely new opportunities for design.January 4, 2010 7
  8. 8. Converging TechnologiesNano Technologies- The ChallengeRichard Feynman:Now, you might say, `Who should do this and why should they doit?Well, I pointed out a few of the economic applications, but I knowthat the reason that you would do it might be just for fun.But have some fun! Lets have a competition between laboratories.Let one laboratory make a tiny motor which it sends to another labwhich sends it back with a thing that fits inside the shaft of the firstmotor.January 4, 2010 8
  9. 9. Converging TechnologiesNanotechnology- what is it?Technology that manipulates at amolecular or macromolecularscale: 1-100 nanometer1990: Xenon atoms 4, 2010 9
  10. 10. Converging TechnologiesNanotechnology- promising?Production on molecular or atomic scale Materials Energy: fulecells, batteries Computer memoryRepairing on a molecular scale: ‘Lab on a chip’: constant health-monitorsJanuary 4, 2010 10
  11. 11. Converging TechnologiesNanotechnology- The ultimate Promise System_of_Chemical_Philosophy_fp.jpg Molecular Nanotechnology (MNT):Building the world atom by atomJanuary 4, 2010 11
  12. 12. Converging TechnologiesNanotechnology- The Ultimate Promise1986 - Eric Drexler, Engines of CreationSelf replicating machines: will robots take over?Grey goo: What if microrobots that auto-energize and self-replicate go out of control: will they transform the whole world in Grey goo? Image:Eric_Drexler_2007.jpgJanuary 4, 2010 12
  13. 13. Converging TechnologiesNanotechnology- Invading RobotsSwarms of Robots that ‘ learn’ Readers are not ‘negative’ about this. content/uploads/2007/12/michael_cric hton_prey.pngJanuary 4, 2010 13
  14. 14. Converging TechnologiesNanotechnology- New Asbestos?Huckzko A, Lange H, Calko E, Grubeck-Jaworska H, Droszez P [2001].Physiological testing of carbon nanotubes: are they asbestos-like? Fullerene Science and Technology 9(2):251 – 254.January 4, 2010 14
  15. 15. Converging TechnologiesBiotechnologyHuman genome documented Functions largely unknown Few therapeutic applicationsJanuary 4, 2010 15
  16. 16. Converging TechnologiesInformation TechnologyWith increasing dataprocessing-possibilities cognitive processes become accessible.Miniature hardware facilittes medical applications.January 4, 2010 16
  17. 17. Converging TechnologiesCognitive ScienceScanning techniques clarify brain activityHolistic approachConnecting nerves and electronicsJanuary 4, 2010 17
  18. 18. Converging TechnologiesCognitive Science- Technology and the Human bodyTraditionally technology in humanapplication is external: glasses/wheelchair The mind is influences as a side effect of alcohol/drugs/anaestheticsNowadays behavior can be influences bymedical intervention: ADHD - Ritalin Stress - Beta blocker Addiction - ?January 4, 2010 18
  19. 19. Converging TechnologiesCognitive ScienceConsequences of Medicine influencing behaviour:What behaviour is: acceptable? a medical problem? a social problem?Medication to stimulate studying?January 4, 2010 19
  20. 20. Converging TechnologiesConverging Molecular NanotechnologyMolecular Nanotechnologie (MNT) in medical applications implies theconvergence of biotechnology, nanotechnology and informationtechnology MNT would ideally construct DNA-chains – optimalizing biotechnology MNT can process and write data on a molecular scaleBut can also:Link communication in the human body or in nature with computernetworks.January 4, 2010 20
  21. 21. Converging TechnologiesPerspectivesRepair (genetic) defectsBrain prothesisDownload information, instead of studying itCopying the mind/our brainsImplementing our mind in a new body.January 4, 2010 21
  22. 22. Converging TechnologiesPotential New TechnologiesFast developments in Brain – Computer interfaces Connecting the nervous systemImplants for the sensesJanuary 4, 2010 22
  23. 23. Converging TechnologiesNeural ProsthesisCochlear implants Electronic ear Has been applied about 100.000 times Controversial in congenital deafnessRetinal Prosthesis 100*100 pixels now successfully appliedJanuary 4, 2010 23
  24. 24. Converging TechnologiesKevin Warwick’s ExperimentsStudies on direct interfaces between computersystems and the human nervous system Controlling an artificial handWhat other options are there? Direct radio communication? Infrared communication? 4, 2010 24
  25. 25. Converging TechnologiesMore optionsRecovery from a spinal cord lesionExtra memory modulesBut also: military cyborgs?Use for defects and ‘enhancement’ are closely connectedJanuary 4, 2010 25
  26. 26. Converging TechnologiesNano, Bio, Information and Cognitive TechnologyConvergence“...advances in geneticengineering, information systems,and robotics will allow archivedhuman beings to live again, even intransformed bodies suitable for lifeon other planets and moons of thesolar system.”Bainbridge, W. S. (2002). Thespaceflight revolution revisited. InS. J. Garber (Ed.), Lookingbackward, looking forward (pp. 39-64). Washington, D.C.: NationalAeronautics and SpaceAdministration.January 4, 2010 26
  27. 27. Converging TechnologiesActual Future or Horror?Bringing frozen bodies back to life? without your body? e:The_Matrix_Poster.jpgWhat is reality if observations aremachine-run (like in The Matrix)January 4, 2010 27
  28. 28. Converging TechnologiesActual Future or Horror?Fears dictated by culture mythology_images/Frankenstein_monsterEmotionless androidsInvasions by other life-formsMonsters- Frankenstein _Boris_Karloff.jpg Boris Karloff as FrankensteinJanuary 4, 2010 28
  29. 29. Converging TechnologiesFilms over Converging Technology in the shellVanilla SkyI robotBattlestar galacticaBlade runnerThe Island _affiche.jpgMinority ReportThe MatrixJanuary 4, 2010 29
  30. 30. Converging TechnologiesThe Fans: Transhumanists and KurzweilHumanity is heading for a new destination,a new and faster evolution, via cyborgs(Nearly) eternal life (4600) 4, 2010 30
  31. 31. Converging TechnologiesFrancis FukuyamaThe first victim of transhumanism might beequality. The U.S. Declaration ofIndependence says that “all men are createdequal,” and the most serious political fights inthe history of the United States have been overwho qualifies as fully human. Women andblacks did not make the cut in 1776 whenThomas Jefferson penned the declaration.Slowly and painfully, advanced societies haverealized that simply being human entitles aperson to political and legal equality. Ineffect, we have drawn a red line around thehuman being and said that it is sacrosanct. www.sais-jhu.eduJanuary 4, 2010 31
  32. 32. Converging TechnologiesFrancis FukuyamaOur good characteristics are intimately connected to our bad ones:If we weren’t violent and aggressive, we wouldn’t be able todefend ourselves; if we didn’t have feelings of exclusivity, wewouldn’t be loyal to those close to us; if we never felt jealousy, wewould also never feel love. Even our mortality plays a criticalfunction in allowing our species as a whole to survive and adapt(and transhumanists are just about the last group I’d like to see liveforever). Modifying any one of our key characteristics inevitablyentails modifying a complex, interlinked package of traits, andwe will never be able to anticipate the ultimate outcome.January 4, 2010 32
  33. 33. Converging TechnologiesFundamental Question: The Meaning of Life?A ‘brave New World’ with perfect, happy individuals where ‘ death’will eventually be determined for a broken down ‘machine’?Will there be room for religion in such a world?A world like this will potentially create great inequality.January 4, 2010 33
  34. 34. Converging TechnologiesSocial and political reactionsDifferences between the US and EuropeNano, bio, information and cognitive technology report NSF: Strong technology push Improve human performanceCTEKS report EU panel Integration of technological potential, recognition of limitations,n needs as a base and economical oppertunitiesJanuary 4, 2010 34
  35. 35. Converging TechnologiesMore reactionsCritical report ETC groupGreenpeaceSeveral research subsidiesIndustry is hesitant with regard to nanotechnology, and especiallywith regard to converged technolgiesA lot of technology assessment is taking place for nanotechnologyprogrammesThe media, unitl now, are not getting involvedJanuary 4, 2010 35
  36. 36. Converging TechnologiesQuestions and controversiesBeing able to diagnose, without being able to provide treatment.Implications for healthcare costs and life insurance.‘Brain hackers’Risks of technology going out of hand?Wil humanity be the ultimate goal of technology, or an evolutionaryobject?Wil different ‘forms’ of the human race have different rights?January 4, 2010 36
  37. 37. Converging TechnologiesQuestions and controversiesBrave New world?Deciding yourself about life and death? What about religion?Inequality?Freedom to refuse the application of converging technology?Barriers to realize advantages?January 4, 2010 37
  38. 38. Converging TechnologiesHow to come to a decision?Foresight-methodsEngage in a well-infomed debateDebat met goed basismateriaalJanuary 4, 2010 38