Practical Day 1Exercise Humidity Saturated vapour pressure es (kPa) γ Temperature t (°C)In the figure above you see (an example of) the relation between vapour pressure andtemperature. The curved line indicates the saturation vapour pressure as a function oftemperature. The relation of the curved line is: 17.3t e s (t ) = 0.61 exp 237 + t With a psychrometer the actual vapour pressure ea(ta) can be determined through the relationea ta es (tw ) 0.066 ta tw . This relation is indicated by the arrow between point P and Q.At a certain moment the following temperatures are measured with a psychrometer:25° C and 17,5 °Ca) Say in words where ta, tw en td stand for.b) What are the temperatures 25° C and 17,5 °Cc) How much is the saturation vapour pressure for 17,5 °Cd) Calculate on the basis of the psychrometer measurements the actual vapour pressuree) What is the value of the psychrometer constant and what is its unit.f) Give the definition of the relative humidity and calculate the relative humidity on the basisof the measurements.
Exercise Data ScreeningDouble MassThe monthly rainfall data of the four stations coded 9337004, 9337006, 9337009 and 9337021in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania over the period 1935-1990 are provided in a spreadsheet onblackboard. The map indicates the location of the stations.You are requested to investigate and explain irregularities in the stations data by comparing foreach station the cumulative precipitation against the average cumulative precipitation of allfour stations.1) Compile these results in a graph with the so called double mass curves. Draw yourconclusions.2) Compile again the double mass curves but now comparing for each station the cumulativeprecipitations against the average of the other three stations.Explain the differences with the previous graph.3) Remove any suspicious stations from the analysis and create new double mass graphs fromthe remaining stations.
Exercise Stage-discharge relationshipsUse all discharge measurements below to draw a stage-discharge curve.Measurement Date Staff gauge Discharge [cm] [m3/s]1 1-2-76 35 0.52 5-4-76 45 1.73 13-6-76 80 15.04 7-8-76 70 9.05 11-10-76 65 7.06 19-11-76 60 5.07 8-2-78 40 1.58 15-4-78 50 2.59 2-7-78 60 8.110 27-8-78 65 10.511 9-9-78 55 3.512 28-10-78 45 2.0 Estimate h0. Plot the Q-h-relationship logarithmically and hence determine the coefficients a and b in the equation. Q = a*(h-h0)b
Water balance from hydrographBelow you find the measured precipitation and the measured discharges of a catchment with asurface area of 8640 km2.Time Precipitation Discharge Time Precipitation Discharge[day] [mm] [m3/s] [day] [mm] [m3/s]1 59 12 2002 54 13 1833 49 14 1684 45 15 1545 41 16 1416 38 17 1297 25 242 18 1188 32 627 19 1099 512 20 9910 364 21 9111 250 22 84All measurements are instantaneous measurements at 08:00 hr AM. For the discharge it meansit is the discharge at 08:00 hr AM. For precipitation it means it is the cumulative 24 hr rainfallof the 24 hrs before! Plot the hydrograph and the precipitation Discharge has a baseflow and direct flow component. Direct flow ends at day 12. Apply the ‘straight line’ method to divide the base flow from the direct flow. Determine the percentage precipitation that leaves the catchment as ‘direct flow’. Determine the percentage precipitation that leaves the catchment as ‘base flow’.
Rainfall Intensity Duration Curves.From a record of 50 years of daily rainfall data you have to establish the intensity-durationcurve. The relation obviously depends on the return period. In a few systematic steps you willcompile such a curve.1) Occurrence in class intervals for various durations.The occurrences of rain exceeding the lower limits of certain class intervals and certainduration is established from the daily rainfall data. The result for 10mm class intervals anddurations of 1,2,5 and 10 days duration is provided in the table. Class interval 1 2 5 10 (mm) 0 18262 18261 18258 18253 10 384 432 730 2001 20 48 127 421 1539 30 5 52 243 713 40 1 12 158 493 50 5 83 286 60 2 49 221 70 25 170 80 16 96 90 9 76 100 5 49 110 3 31 120 1 22 130 1 16 140 9 150 7 160 5 170 4 180 2 190 2 200 12)Cumulative frequency curvesIn an excel sheet and graph establish for each duration (1,2,5, 10 days, 4 lines ) the relationbetween return period (vertical axis) for each bottom value of class interval (horizontal axis).We are not interested in return periods less than a year. Plot the return period on logarithmicscale.3) Depth Duration Frequency CurveFor the specific return periods of 1, 10 and 100 years (3 lines) plot the duration in days (x-axis) against the (cumulative) rainfall depth in millimeters. This information follows directlyfrom reading the previous plot. Make the same plot on a log-log scale.4) Intensity Duration Frequency Curve.Dividing the rainfall depths from the previous step by the duration yields the average intensityin [mm/day].In this way make a Intensity Duration Frequence curve (3 lines) on both linear and doublelogarithmic scale
Practical Day 2Exercise Dry Spell Analysis.The occurrence of dry spells in the main wet season is analyzed through a frequency analysisof daily rainfall records of the rainfall station coded (9337006) in the Pangani Basin, Tanzania.The main wet season runs from 1st March to 31st May and consists of 92 days. Daily rainfalldata available for 18 years is provided on blackboard.Theory for this analysis is provided in the lecture notes chapter 1.2.4 Analysis of dry spells.1) Using an excel sheet define for all the years during the main wet season the number of dryspells of durations varying from 2 to 20 days.2) Follow the procedure as described in the lecture note to come up with the probability that adry spell longer than a certain duration occurs.3) What is your conclusion on the possibilities for rainfed agriculture at this location.
Exercise Extreme Value Distribution and Mixed Distribution.In this exercise an extreme value distribution will be fitted through the extreme values ofrunoff from the station Pavlovka Uborka in a river on the East Russian Coast. First of all it isassumed that the extreme values are homogeneous and originate from one and the samepopulation. However, it is known that some of the extremes are the result of cyclones (namedtyphoons in this part of the world) that come to land from the Pacific Ocean. Therefore,secondly, a heterogeneous distribution will be assumed recognizing that the extremes originatefrom two different populations, i.e. extremes from cyclones and extremes from thunderstormsevents. Hence the result is the combination of two distributions, the so called mixeddistribution.1) Compile a Gumbel type I extreme value distribution assuming that all the data belongs toone and the same distribution. Plot the data and the Gumbel distribution using excel,i.e. the reduced variate y (on the x-axis) against the extreme X (on the y-axis). For theprocedure to create a Gumbel distribution see the lecture notes chapter 2.6 Flood Frequencyanalysis, Gumbel type I.Give values of the parameters for the equation: ( y ym )X X m s. and y a( X b) sy2) Now recognizing that there are two populations compile for each of the populations theGumbel type I distribution and plot the data and the two Gumbel distributions in the samegraph you made for question 1).Give for each population values of the parameters for the equation of the Gumbel distribution: ( y1 y1,m ) X 1 X 1,m s. and y1 a1 ( X 1 b1 ) s1, y ( y2 y2,m )X 2 X 2,m s. and y2 a2 ( X 2 b2 ) s2, y3) Compile the mixed distribution and plot the result in the same graph from the previousquestionsHint:The mixed distribution reads as (see lecture notes 1.2.2 Mixed distribution):p( X x) p1 ( X x | C ). p(C ) p2 ( X x | T ). p (T )
For a Gumbel distribution it is known that: y y p1 ( X x | C ) 1 e e and p2 ( X x | T ) 1 e e 1 2To create the curve of the mixed distribution every time select an extreme X, calculate thecorresponding reduced variate y1 and y2 for each distribution and the corresponding p1(X>x,|C)and p2(X>x|T). This provides the basis to determine the probability p(X>x) of the mixeddistribution for the extreme X.