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CDrinking water supply

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  • 1. Drinking water supply in developingcountries Dr.ir. Luuk RietveldMarch 3, 2007 1Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
  • 2. The Romans and drinking water supplyMarch 3, 2007 2
  • 3. The Romans and drinking water supplyThree issues show the greatness of Rome:Roads, water supply mains and sewersDionysius of Halicarnassus(30-8 before Chr. Rome)March 3, 2007 3
  • 4. Drinking water supply in theNetherlands• End 18th century development of medical statistics• Beginning of 19th century development of hygienism• 1832 1st CHOLERA outbreak• Around 1850 relation between water and illness• 2nd half 19th century projects of waste and waste water• 2nd half 19th century start of central water supply in big cities• 1st half 20th century water supply in little communities• 1940 70% of the population connected to water supply• 1968 99% of the population connected to water supply• 1984 legal obligation for bacteriological analysesMarch 3, 2007 4
  • 5. Typhoid and the percentage of nonconnected inhabitants number per 100.000 inhabitants % non connected 70 70 1919 60 60 1945 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 1900 1925 1950 1975 yearMarch 3, 2007 5
  • 6. What are the costs?• Drinking water € 1,20 per m3• Sewerage € 70 per inh. per year• Waste water treatment € 120 per inh. per year• total costs: less than €1 per inh. day!!• Total in sector: 4 billion euro per year!!March 3, 2007 6
  • 7. Requirements for drinking watersupply• Sufficient drinking water (demand is covered)• Sufficient pressure (minimal 20 m above street level)• Required quality (sampling and checking with standards)Piped water is drinking water!Bacteriologically reliableNo chemical polutantsDrinking water without chlorineLow leakage percentageMarch 3, 2007 7
  • 8. Source of drinking water Ground water Surface water Infiltration water River bank water
  • 9. Groudwater pumping station
  • 10. Treatment of surface water Surface water bekken Reservoir Reservoir oeverfiltratie River bank filtration Pre-treatment Infiltration directetreatment Direct zuivering Post-treatment zuivering Treatment Drinking water
  • 11. March 3, 2007 11
  • 12. Infiltration water
  • 13. Post-treatment
  • 14. Set-up of drinking water project indeveloping countries• Problem definition and demand inventory• Determination of objectives and boundary conditions• Generation of alternatives• Determination of criteria• Selection of alternative• DesignAppriopriate technology: Accepted and sustainableMarch 3, 2007 15
  • 15. Appropriate technology, service level• Availability• Quality• Consumption objectiveHigh service level for small part of populationMinimal service level for total population•Boundary conditions• Geohydrologica situation• Willingness to pay• Technological development• Presence of sewersMarch 3, 2007 16
  • 16. Appropriate technology, service levelAlternatives• Traditional well• Improved well• Well or borehole with handpump• Rainwater catchment• Water distribution system • Public standpost • Garden connections • House connectionsMarch 3, 2007 17
  • 17. Appropriate technology, treatment Multi-barrier systems vs Convential drinking water treatment Advantages Robust No chemical High efficiency Disadvantages Initial investments Occupation of spaceMarch 3, 2007 18
  • 18. Conventional surface watertreatment Reservoir Floc formation and removal Filtration chlorination Drinking water
  • 19. Multi-barrier surface water treatment Dynamic roughing filtration Roughing filtration Slow sand filtration chlorination Drinking water
  • 20. Roughing/ slow sand filtrationMarch 3, 2007 21

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