Breakwaters and closure dams: chapter 4

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Breakwaters and closure dams: chapter 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Considerations at systemslevelct5308 Breakwaters and Closure DamsH.J. VerhagenApril 12, 2012 1Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesVermelding onderdeel organisatieSection Hydraulic Engineering
  2. 2. Functions of breakwaters• protection against waves • protection of port and shipping under normal conditions • protection of ports under extreme conditions • shore protection• guiding of currents• protection against shoaling• provision of dock and quay facilitiesApril 12, 2012 2
  3. 3. Allowable wave heights Type of vessel Maximum Hs in m at the berth Pleasure craft 0.15 – 0.25 Fishing vessel 0.40 Dredges and dredge barges 0.80 – 1.00 General cargo (<30.000 dwt) 1.00 – 1.25 Dry bulk cargo (30.000 dwt) 1.00 – 1.25 Dry bulk cargo (<100.000 dwt) 1.50 Oil tankers (<30.000 dwt) 1.00 – 1.25 Oil tankers (<200.000 dwt) 1.50 – 2.50 Oil tankers (<300.000 dwt) 2.50 – 3.00 Passenger vessels 0.70 data from Thoresen, 1988April 12, 2012 3
  4. 4. harbour of MarseillesApril 12, 2012 4
  5. 5. Breakwater at the Europort entranceApril 12, 2012 5
  6. 6. A system of detached breakwaters atFiumicino, ItalyApril 12, 2012 6
  7. 7. Flow pattern at the Europort entranceApril 12, 2012 7
  8. 8. Entrance to the port of AbidjanApril 12, 2012 8
  9. 9. Flow pattern at the port of AbidjanApril 12, 2012 9
  10. 10. Port and breakwaters of IJmuidenApril 12, 2012 10
  11. 11. Siltation at the entrance to the port of Paradip, IndiaApril 12, 2012 11
  12. 12. Functions of closure dams• land reclamation• shortening of the length of sea defence• creating fresh water reservoir• creation of tidal energy basin• creation of a fixed level harbour basin• creation of a construction dock• providing road or railroad• repair a dike breach• control of upland flow• creating fish ponds• cutting of river bendsApril 12, 2012 12
  13. 13. The Rhine Meuse delta before theyear 1000April 12, 2012 13
  14. 14. Situation after damming the riverMeuseApril 12, 2012 14
  15. 15. Situation after the St.Elisabeth’sFloodApril 12, 2012 15
  16. 16. The Biesbosch areaApril 12, 2012 16
  17. 17. The Afsluitdijk and the tidal rangeApril 12, 2012 17
  18. 18. April 12, 2012 18

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