Breakwaters and closure dams appendix a2
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Breakwaters and closure dams appendix a2

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Breakwaters and closure dams appendix a2 Breakwaters and closure dams appendix a2 Presentation Transcript

  • Quarry OperationsAppendix A2ct5308 Breakwaters and Closure damsH.J. VerhagenApril 12, 2012 1Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesVermelding onderdeel organisatieSection Hydraulic Engineering
  • Types of quarries• Production of aggregates• Production of blocks (dimension stone)April 12, 2012 2
  • Geological features• Joints• Faults• DiscontinuitiesApril 12, 2012 3 View slide
  • joints and fractures joints fracturesApril 12, 2012 4 View slide
  • types of fractures attitude of the discontinuityApril 12, 2012 5
  • distanced between discontinuitiesApril 12, 2012 6
  • April 12, 2012 7
  • block sizeApril 12, 2012 8
  • April 12, 2012 9
  • Giant Causeway, Northern IrelandApril 12, 2012 10
  • April 12, 2012 11
  • mining planApril 12, 2012 12
  • mining planApril 12, 2012 13
  • Terraces in a quarry Sini Vir quarry, BulgariaApril 12, 2012 14
  • effect of rock density and water absorptionon required rock weightApril 12, 2012 15
  • April 12, 2012 16
  • Methods to get rock out of themountain• Drilling and blasting • using dynamite • using gunpowder• Sawing Vegard Olsen, ICS 2005, IcelandApril 12, 2012 17
  • Blasting large blocks in a quarryVegard Olsen, ICS 2005, Iceland April 12, 2012 18
  • Drilling equipment Sini Vir quarry, BulgariaApril 12, 2012 19
  • April 12, 2012 20
  • Blasting at Jebel Berri Jubail, nov 1982April 12, 2012 21
  • Sawing of dimension stoneApril 12, 2012 22
  • Scrap stone from a dimension stone quarry April 12, 2012 23
  • Loading of rejected dimension stone Larvik, Tveidalen, Stema loading facilityApril 12, 2012 24
  • ELL: Extreme upper limit NLL: Nominal lower limit NUL: Nominal upper limit EUL: Extreme upper limitApril 12, 2012 25
  • in 60-300 and 300-1000 kg April 12, 2012 26
  • April 12, 2012 27
  • production screen for 10-60 kg (falling through) and greater than 300 kg (sliding over)April 12, 2012 28
  • al Rakeeb sorting facility April 12, 2012 29
  • sorting – bar sizer April 12, 2012 30
  • April 12, 2012 31
  • sorting – side kickApril 12, 2012 32
  • April 12, 2012 33
  • April 12, 2012 34
  • April 12, 2012 35
  • April 12, 2012 36
  • Splitting oversize blocks with a hydraulic peckerApril 12, 2012 37
  • April 12, 2012 38
  • April 12, 2012 39
  • Weight reduction of armour between blasting and operation in breakwaterApril 12, 2012 40
  • April 12, 2012 41
  • April 12, 2012 42
  • April 12, 2012 43
  • How big is this rock ??April 12, 2012 44
  • This is small rock !April 12, 2012 45 Vietnam, Hue area
  • Stockpile 300-1000 kg and 1-3 tonsApril 12, 2012 46
  • 300 - 100 kg April 12, 2012 47
  • Stockpile 1-3 ton basaltApril 12, 2012 48
  • How big is this rock ?? 1 - 3 cm 1-3 tonnesApril 12, 2012 49
  • What is dn ? dn = 22 cm A4 Devnya quarry, Bulgaria, fieldwork 2002April 12, 2012 50
  • weighing blocks individuallyApril 12, 2012 51
  • analysis Devnya quarry Mass distribution 100% M50 = 24 kg 90% ρ = 2284 kg/m3 80% dn50 = 22 cmPercentage by mass lighter 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 Mass [kg] April 12, 2012 52
  • dn log-linear scale Distribution Dn 100% 90% Percentage by Dn smaller 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0.10 1.00 Dn logarithm ic scale [m ]April 12, 2012 53
  • dn on log-Gaussian scale Gaussian distribution 1.9 1.4 pr(%) - Gauss scale 0.9 0.4 -0.1 0.10 1.00 -0.6 -1.1 -1.6 -2.1 Dn Gaussian scale [m ]April 12, 2012 54
  • New standard• Old standard: NEN 5180 – 5188• New standard: EN 13383 • part 1: Armourstone – Specifications • part 2: Armourstone – Test MethodsApril 12, 2012 55
  • Standard conformity declaration For armourstone use category 4 Name producer Year of mark Standard number Product description Information on product detailsApril 12, 2012 56
  • Properties description method• When selecting an armourstone grading or property the approach is to select the appropriate category• For example: M DE 20 The property Value selected; description. In or maximum or this case minimum value Micro-Deval allowed. In this index case max. valueApril 12, 2012 57
  • Categories• An option to use No Requirement (NR) category is also possible • For example, for crushed stone, the Rounding Index is usually not used (required for a minimum proportion of crushed or broke surfaces). So this would be RONR• If properties are outside specific limits, the producer may declare a value • E.g. if % of armourstone pieces with L/T>3 for a course grading is 25% (normal max. is 20%) the producer would state LT25. • A client could buy this as an LTNR core materialApril 12, 2012 58
  • Gradings in New standard• Course Grading 45/125 – 63/180 – 90/250 – 45/180 – 90/180 mm (30/60 – – 40/100 – 50/150 – 80/200 mm)• Light Grading 5/40 – 10/60 – 40/200 – 60/300 – 5/300 kg• Heavy Grading 0.3/1 – 1/3 – 3/6 – 6/10 – 10/15 tonsCategory A and B: A has some tighter control on mass distribution, but usually B is sufficient (For cover layers use category A)April 12, 2012 59
  • Course gradings• For general use: 45/125 63/180 90/250 mm• For wide grading: 45/180 mm• For gabion stone: 90/180 mmLight gradings • For general use: 5 to 40 kg, 40 to 200 kg, 60 to 300 kg • For wide grading: 15 to 300 kgProducer declared • Producer may declare other gradings, for example HM2000/4000April 12, 2012 60
  • Class name rangeOverview CP45/125 45/125 mmof classes CP63/180 63/180 mmin CP90/250 90/250 mm CP45/180 45/200 mmEN 13383 CP90/180 90/180 mm LMA 5-40 5-40 kg LMA 10-60 10-60 kg LMA 40-200 40-200 kg LMA 60-300 60-300 kg LMA 15-300 15-300 kg HMA 300-1000 300-1000 kg HMA 1000-3000 1-3 ton HMA 3000-6000 3-6 ton HMA 6000-10000 6-10 ton April 12, 2012 61
  • Grading system ELL extreme lower limit NLL normal lower limit NUL normal upper limit EUL extreme upper limitApril 12, 2012 62
  • Grading description• For course gradings: CPNLL/NUL e.g. CP90/250• For light and heavy gradings: LMANLL/NUL HMBNLL/NUL e.g. HMB60/300 category A or B light of heavy gradingApril 12, 2012 63
  • Weight distribution acc. to EN13383Standard 100distributions 0.3-1 ton cumulative fraction 80 1-3 ton 60 3-6 ton 40 6-10 ton 10-15 ton 20 - 0 100 1000 10000 100000 kg Mean weight Dn-distribution (adapted from EN13383) category A 100 0.1-3 ton - cumulative fraction 80 1-3 ton 60 - 40 3-6 ton - 20 6-10 ton 0 - 0.3 0.8 1.3 1.8 10-15 ton Dn (m) - April 12, 2012 64
  • Other parameters in new standard• Shape (LT) • proportion crushed• Crushed surface (RO) • resistance to wear (MDE)• Particle density • water absorption (WA)• Resistance to breakage (CS) • freezing/thawing (FT)• Petrographic description • salt crystallization (MS)• Dangerous substances • impurities • dicalcium silicate disintegration • iron disintegration • steel slag disintegration (DS) • sonnenbrand (SB) April 12, 2012 65
  • Density requirements• Average density of 10 pieces: > x Mg/m3• Density of at least 36 pieces of 40 pieces tested: > x-0.10Mg/m3• The value for x shall be declared by the producer and stated to 2 decimals places and shall not be less than 2.30.• Note: for design use wet density: • ρwet = (1+0.0050 WA) ρdry (submerged) • ρwet = (1+0.0025 WA) ρdry (not submerged)April 12, 2012 66
  • Shape requirements Length to thickness ratio greater than 3 category Percentage by mass Percentage by LT number course light gradings heavy gradings gradings ≤20 ≤20 ≤5 LTA Other value Other value Other value declared by declared by declared by the LTdeclaredthe producer the producer producer No No No requirement LTNR requirement requirementApril 12, 2012 67
  • Resistance to wear• Micro Deval test • use MDENR for everything except cover layers • use MDE20 for most cover layers• The test is done by placing samples in a drum, add steel balls and water, and rotate the drum for 2 hrs• Then dry the residue and determine the percentage of abraded material• For details see EN1097-1April 12, 2012 68
  • Mineral breakage• Determine compressive strength using EN 1926• preferred category: CS80April 12, 2012 69
  • Durability• Water absorption test • If WA0.5 is achieved (i.e. WA is not more than 0.5%) no further testing is needed • If not, then: • test salt crystallisation • select category MS25 • If likely to freeze above waterline, check freeze thaw resistance • required category FTAApril 12, 2012 70
  • Crushed surfaces• Only relevant when rock is NOT from a quarry, but in case river boulders, etc. are used• So this parameter is usually not relevantApril 12, 2012 71
  • Smaller aggregates• Stones smaller than CP45/125 are not defined in EN13383• Other standards: • EN12620 for the concrete industry • EN13242 (for civil engineering works and road construction).April 12, 2012 72
  • From EN13242 GC Course gradings GF Fine gradings GNG Natural graded GA Wide gradationApril 12, 2012 73
  • Grading categories (EN13242)Example for grading 20/40 mm (e.g. for polymerbonded materials)April 12, 2012 74