Breakwaters and closure dams 11
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Breakwaters and closure dams 11

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Breakwaters and closure dams 11 Breakwaters and closure dams 11 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 11: Design practice forbreakwater cross sectionsct5308 Breakwaters and Closure DamsH.J. VerhagenApril 12, 2012 1Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesVermelding onderdeel organisatieSection Hydraulic Engineering
  • Given a quarry:• Split the rock in three categories • filter • core • armour you make a berm breakwater• Split the rock in many categories you may define more layersApril 12, 2012 2
  • permeability/porosity ⎛ρ ⎞ volumetric porosity: nv = 1 − ⎜ b ρ ⎟ ⎝ r⎠Type and shape of Layer Placement Layer Porosity Sourceunits thickness coefficient nv n ktSmooth quarry stone 2 Random 1.02 0.38 SPMVery round quarry Random 0.80 0.36 Cur/CiriastoneVery round quarry Special 1.05 – 1.20 0.35 Cur/CiriastoneSemi-round quarry Random 0.75 0.37 Cur/CiriastoneSemi-round quarry Special 1.10 – 1.25 0.36 Cur/CiriastoneRough quarry stone 2 Random 1.00 0.37 SPMRough quarry stone >3 Random 1.00 0.40 SPMIrregular quarry stone Random 0.75 0.40 Cur/CiriaIrregular quarry stone Special 1.05 – 1.20 0.39 Cur/CiriaGraded quarry stone Random - 0.37 SPMCubes 2 Random 1.10 0.47 SPMTetrapods 2 Random 1.04 0.50 SPMDolosse 2 Random 0.94 0.56 SPMAccropode 1 Special 1.3 0.52 SogreahAkmon 2 Random 0.94 0.50 WLApril 12, 2012 3 View slide
  • layer thickness t = n kt Dn50 number of elements N = nkt A(1 − nv ) D −2 n50 (A is a given area)April 12, 2012 4 View slide
  • layer thickness testsApril 12, 2012 Carlos Bosma, nov 2001 5
  • measuring the top of the layer Carlos Bosma, nov 2001April 12, 2012 6
  • measuring the topApril 12, 2012 Carlos Bosma, nov 2001 7
  • F1 = 0.275 Dn F3 = 0.740 Dn F3a (sphere) = 0.462 Dn F3a (pin) = 0.667 Dn Volumetric layer thickness: F2 + 0.14 Dn + 0.37 Dn = F2 + 0.51 Dn Measured layer thickness: 0.275Dn + F2 + 0.278Dn = F2 + 0.553 Dn Difference: 0.043 Dn Carlos Bosma, nov 2001April 12, 2012 8
  • Heavy aggregates Normal Heavy density concrete concreteDensity in air (t/m3) 2.4 4.0Density in water(t/m3) 1.4 3.010 tonnes in water (m3) 7.14 3.33In air this corresponds to (tonnes) 17.14 13.32Volume decrease when using Heavy 55%density concreteDecrease of weight in air 22%@325 kg/m3 – total cement required for 3220 108210 tonnesDecrease in cement consumption for 10 1238 1082tonnes of weightDecrease in cement consumption in % 55% April 12, 2012 9
  • Sines breakwater (110 ton Antiferblocks)April 12, 2012 10
  • breakwater and berms high berm berm at mslApril 12, 2012 11
  • definition sketch of cross sectionhigh or low crest tolerances toe bermcrest design armour layer corerock or concrete armour crest filter first under layerApril 12, 2012 12
  • overtopping light overtopping (with cap) light overtopping moderate overtopping moderate overtopping (with cap)April 12, 2012 13 severe overtopping
  • various toe solutions dredged trench, geotextileclassic solution no excavation, geotextile anddredged trench, gravel increased berm April 12, 2012 14
  • monolithic breakwater New PIANC guidelines availableApril 12, 2012 15
  • April 12, 2012 16