Biomedical Engineering Design - Lecture 6. Orthoses
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Biomedical Engineering Design - Lecture 6. Orthoses

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Biomedical Engineering Design - Lecture 6. Orthoses Biomedical Engineering Design - Lecture 6. Orthoses Presentation Transcript

  • OrthosesCarrying Orthosis, Elbow Orthosis, ARMONJust HerderWb2308 Biomedical Engineering DesignJ.L.Herder@3mE.tudelft.nlFaculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering (3mE)Department of BioMechanical Engineering (BMechE)Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
  • Overview• Carrying Orthosis• Elbow Orthosis• ARMONNovember 14, 2005 2
  • Design guidelines• Cosmetics: appearance, natural usage• Comfort: lightweight, ‘breathing’• Control: low mental and physical loadNovember 14, 2005 3
  • 1. No shear forces!November 14, 2005 4
  • 2. Distance between interfaces!November 14, 2005 5
  • 3. Make interfaces adaptive!November 14, 2005 6
  • 4. Perforate the interfaces!November 14, 2005 7
  • Design perspectives• Motion directed design: starting with desired motion (or positions), add actuators later.• Force directed design (FDD): start with desired forces (or force distributions), take care about motion later.Same mechanics, different design perspective!November 14, 2005 8
  • Example 1Given situationDesired situationNovember 14, 2005 9
  • Example 1Solution according to motion directed designNovember 14, 2005 10
  • Example 1Solution according to force directed designEquilibrium through addition of appropriate forcesNovember 14, 2005 11
  • Example 1Solution according to force directed designEquilibrium through addition of appropriate forcesNovember 14, 2005 12
  • Example 1Solution according to force directed designEquilibrium through addition of appropriate forcesNovember 14, 2005 13
  • Example 1Solution according to force directed designEquilibrium through addition of appropriate forcesNovember 14, 2005 14
  • Example 1Solution according to force directed designEquilibrium through addition of appropriate forcesNovember 14, 2005 15
  • Example 1November 14, 2005 16
  • Example 1Solution according to force directed designEquilibrium through addition of appropriate forcesNovember 14, 2005 17
  • Example 1Solution according to force directed designContinuous equilibrium through static balancingNovember 14, 2005 18
  • Conclusion example 1• Start with desired forces or force distribution• Make equilibrium with other forces• Select profitable force application points• Apply guidelines• Connect application points with minimal material• If mobility desired: static balancingNovember 14, 2005 19
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 20
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying Orthosis Present solutions do not workNovember 14, 2005 21
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 22
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying Orthosis Result: Flail arm SubluxationNovember 14, 2005 23
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 24
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 Cool 1989 25
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 26
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 27
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 28
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying Orthosis Made out of stainless steel tubeNovember 14, 2005 29
  • Shoulder orthosisa.k.a WILMER Carrying Orthosis• Neutralization of subluxation• Suppression of oedema• Reduced pain• Protection• Allows passive motion• Low mass• Comfortable• Invisible• Easy donning and doffingNovember 14, 2005 30
  • Carrying orthosisNovember 14, 2005 31
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 32
  • Elbow Orthosis State of the Art…November 14, 2005 33
  • Use of springs Mass-to-mass Mass-to-spring (counterweight) (counterspring)November 14, 2005 34
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 35
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 36
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 37
  • Elbow Orthosis F F G GNovember 14, 2005 38
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 39
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 40
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 41
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 42
  • Elbow Orthosis• Restores (some) elbow function• Comfortable• Low mass• Invisible• Cosmetically pleasing• Easy donning and doffing• Straightforward fitting procedure• Automatic locking deviceNovember 14, 2005 43
  • Elbow OrthosisNovember 14, 2005 44
  • Anglepoise (Carwardine, 1934)November 14, 2005 45
  • Example 2: Neuromuscular diseases600 variants identifiedMuscular Dystrophies (Duchenne DMD)Motor Neuron Diseases (Spinal Muscular Atrophy SMA)Inflammatory MyopathiesNeuromuscular Junction DiseasesEndocrine AbnormalitiesPeripheral Nerve DiseasesMetabolic Diseases of MuscleOver 1 mln. people affected in USASMA alone 12 .. 40 per mln of the adult populationNeonatal from 40 per mln (USA) to 200 per mln (SA)November 14, 2005 46
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)InheritedAffects motor neurons voluntary musclesSenses not affected, normal or above-average intellectIncurableProgressiveNovember 14, 2005 47
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Respiration Trunk HipsNovember 14, 2005 48
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Shoulders Respiration Trunk Hips LegsNovember 14, 2005 49
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Shoulders NeckElbows Respiration Trunk Hips LegsNovember 14, 2005 50
  • Two of our volunteers! Academic degree A B Head support Scoliosis, A had surgery, B not Wheelchair bound Arm on armrest Good sense of touch Slight deformations in handsNovember 14, 2005 51
  • Design Criteria System preference 1: Separate 2: Powered 3: Passive Manipulators Orthoses Orthoses Universal Golden Radial Arm Manus ARM Focal TOPWeston MULOS WREX November 14, 2005 52
  • Available assistive devices1. Rehabilitation robotic manipulators TNO MANUS No use of hand function Control by joystickNovember 14, 2005 53
  • Available assistive devices2. Powered orthotic devices Use of hand function Control by joystickNovember 14, 2005 54
  • Available assistive devices3. Passive orthotic devices: static balance FOCAL Use of hand functionUniversal Healthcare Systems No separate controlNovember 14, 2005 55
  • Design CriteriaBased on home visits• Independence • Personal Hygiene • Cooking, eating • Computer work• Social activities • Have dinner • Shake hands• Trunk balance • Arm rest essential• Inconspicuous! “Your page turner is ready…”November 14, 2005 © Contact (VSN) 56
  • Clinically driven approachRange of motion for desired activities EP Elevation deg 0 .. 135 plane EA Elevation angle 0 .. 90 deg EP FP Flexion plane 0 .. 90 deg FA Flexion angle 0 .. 150 deg FP EA EA and FP most important FANovember 14, 2005 57
  • Springs and masses m k k1a a1 r1 r r2 L k2 a2 mgL=rka r1k1a1= r2k2a2 November 14, 2005 58
  • Conceptionframework k1a1r1 = k2a2r2Parameter variationRotation k1a1 = k2a2Shift kres = ΣkiKinematic inversionResultant springRes. spring element mg = kaSimilarity mass-springNovember 14, 2005 59
  • Anthropomobile balanced armNovember 14, 2005 60 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced armNovember 14, 2005 61 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced arm Desired: not fixedNovember 14, 2005 62 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced armNovember 14, 2005 63 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced arm mL1=r1k1a1 Superposition: degrees of freedom associated withNovember 14, 2005 lower spring are balanced 64 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced arm Superposition: additionalNovember 14, 2005 degree of freedom 65 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced arm mL1=r1k1a1 mL2=r2k2a2November 14, 2005 66 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced arm Four degrees of freedom Two zero-free-length springs for perfect static balanceNovember 14, 2005 67 Herder and Tuijthof (1998)
  • Anthropomobile balanced armVariable stiffness controlMcKibben actuatorsStatically balancedInherently safeNovember 14, 2005 68
  • Conceptual design Mechanism alongside the user’s armAttached to Attached to the Hybrid form withwheelchair user’s trunk additional segmentInsufficient Respitatory Excessivemobility hamper complexity November 14, 2005 69
  • Conceptual designForce analysis revisitedNovember 14, 2005 70
  • Conceptual designForce analysis revisited m1 gNovember 14, 2005 71
  • Conceptual design Force analysis revisited Fs FeFe and Fs constantFs by shoulder m1 g November 14, 2005 72
  • Conceptual designForce analysis revisited F m2 g eNovember 14, 2005 73
  • Conceptual design Force analysis revisited Fccm CCM F m2 gFe and m2g constant eFccm for complete arm November 14, 2005 74
  • Biomechanics Change of Design Paradigm Fccm CCMBalancing 2-link 4DoF arm Balancing a point mass! November 14, 2005 75
  • Conceptual designBased on CCM principle Anglepoise Desk Lamp (Carwardine, 1934) No longer alongside arm Arm rest maintained InconspicuousNovember 14, 2005 76
  • FccmConceptual designBased on CCM principle No longer alongside arm Arm rest maintained Inconspicuous Single fitting Only normal forcesNovember 14, 2005 77
  • Conceptual designWorking principle mL1=r1k1a1 mL2=r2k2a2November 14, 2005 78
  • Conceptual design Side view Herder et al. Anti-gravity system rather than pick-and-place robot November 14, 2005 Herder, Tomazio, and Cardoso, 2001 79Patent pending
  • ARMON (Mark I) Preliminary clinical testing Herder et al. November 14, 2005 Herder, Tomazio, Cardoso, Gil and Koopman, 2002 80Patent pending
  • ARMON (Mark I) Patient performing important ADL with device Sergio Luis Ms B. Sergio Tomazio Jorine Koopman and Luis Cardoso recieving the Premio Engenheiro Jaime Philipe award November 14, 2005 Herder, Tomazio, Cardoso, Gil and Koopman, 2002 81Patent pending
  • Conceptual designFrontal viewNovember 14, 2005 82
  • Preliminary clinical testingMoving arm sideways Herder, Tomazio, Cardoso, Gil and Koopman, 2002November 14, 2005 83
  • Preliminary clinical testingMoving arm sideways Herder, Tomazio, Cardoso, Gil and Koopman, 2002November 14, 2005 84
  • Preliminary clinical testingInterference with fixed arm rest! Herder, Tomazio, Cardoso, Gil and Koopman, 2002November 14, 2005 85
  • Preliminary clinical testingFitting unbalance! CCM Herder, Tomazio, Cardoso, Gil and Koopman, 2002November 14, 2005 86
  • Preliminary clinical testingWhen very weak: friction! Herder, Tomazio, Cardoso, Gil and Koopman, 2002November 14, 2005 87
  • Conclusion Arm SupportAchievements:• CCM principle works well• Aesthetics and control highly appreciatedProblems to be solved:• Interference with fixed arm rest• Fitting unbalance• FrictionNovember 14, 2005 88
  • ARMON (Mark II) Team: 2 ME and 2 IDE students Sabine Gal (IDE)Tonko Antonides (IDE)x = Jqdet (J ) = 0Wendy van Stralen (ME) Pieter Lucieer (ME) November 14, 2005 Herder, Stralen, Lucieer, Gal and Antonides, 2004 89
  • ARMON (Mark II) Complete device and close up of fitting Wendy (ME) November 14, 2005 Herder, Stralen, Lucieer, Gal and Antonides, 2004 90Patent pending
  • ARMON (Mark II) Patients with the device November 14, 2005 Herder, Stralen, Lucieer, Gal and Antonides, 2004 91Patent pending
  • ARMON (Mark III) Testing of pre-production prototype Ms B. Niels Vrijlandt and Tonko Antonides at work November 14, 2005 Herder, Vrijlandt, Antonides, Cloosterman, 2005 92Patent pending
  • ARMON (Mark III) First commercial product November 14, 2005 Herder, Vrijlandt, Antonides, Cloosterman, 2005 93Patent pending www.microgravityproducts.com
  • Development of ARMON• Mark I: • Proof of novel CCM balancing principle • Single fitting and aesthetics highly appreciated• Mark II: • Improved range of motion, no interference • Actively adjustable gravity balancing • Improved appearance and fitting design• Mark III: • Further improved balancing quality and reduced friction • Reduced box volume, general sophisticationNovember 14, 2005 94
  • Thank you for your attention Eelke drinking a glass of water with ARMON Mark IINovember 14, 2005 95
  • Acknowledgment• MSc Students: Sergio Tomazio, Luis Cardoso, Jorine Koopman, Clara Gil Guerrero, Wendy van Stralen, Pieter Lucieer, Sabine Gal, Tonko Antonides• Physician: Imelda de Groot MD• Patients: In total over 12 patients tried the device• Patient organization: Dutch Neuromuscular Disease Association (VSN)• Company: Microgravity Products (MGP), Niels Vrijlandt, Tonko Antonides, Marijn Cloosterman, for manufacturing the prototypes and images.November 14, 2005 96