BiomechatronicsDelft University of Technology, 2007             Wb 2432    Artificial Sensory Systems        Frans van der...
Sensing for assistive motor systems
Sensing for assistive motor systems              why?
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Sensing for assistive motor systems           Sensory signals     derived from the human body
Sensing for assistive motor systems           Angle recording                        Buttons in crutches                  ...
Measure physiological signals     Brain signals EEG     Intention detection     Think left or right                       ...
Measure physiological signals   muscle activation: EMG                  EMG processing
Intention detection              MIT media labs           expressive footwear:        Measuring motions and forces
Intention detection  MIT media labsexpressive footwear                       Byron in action
Sensing for assistive motor systems    • use bodys own sensors and CNS signals    • artificial sensors         physiologic...
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Measure bodys own sensory signals                                         tripolar measurement cuffphysiological sensors (...
Measure bodys own sensory signalsskin pressure   sensors                                          University              ...
1. Muscle stimulation2. Neural sensing of   tactile stimuli3. Controller4. Spinal cord lesion5. Intent detection
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Sensing for assistive motor systems                     Sensory feedback to the user                     by stimulation of...
Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensory feedback to the user by stimulation of skin sensors            Influence of sti...
Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensory feedback to the user by stimulation of skin sensors          Influence of inter...
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Sensing for assistive motor systems    • use bodys own sensors and CNS signals    • artificial sensors        Triaxial acc...
Artificial sensors for assistive motor systems               force sensors • Interface forces:       Force sensitive resis...
Artificial sensors for assistive motor systems             movement sensors   • goniometers   • Magnetic sensors          ...
Inertial sensingaccelerometer    sa = a − g                                    a coriolisRate gyroscope(angular velocity s...
The human vestibular systemis an 3D inertial sensor system
Inertial sensingUniversity of Twente                  BIOS group
Detection of postures and movements                      using uni-axial accelerometersDetector posture - movement        ...
hemiplegic gait: drop foot stimulator                                                  accelerometer at shank             ...
Inertial sensor: quantitative sensing       estimation of orientation                  signal analysisa   3D rate gyroscop...
3D inertial sensor system                 (accelerometer - rate gyroscope)              reconstruction of knee angle durin...
DiscussionThe best sensor is no sensor??
Discussion  The best sensor is no sensor??Sensor and control can result inreproducible, reliable and flexible performance....
Sensing for assistive motor systems              why?
Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensor             Physical quantity      Transduction principles       Interaction wit...
Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensor            Physical quantity        Transduction principles          Interaction...
Biomechatronics - Lecture 11. Artificial sensing
Biomechatronics - Lecture 11. Artificial sensing
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Biomechatronics - Lecture 11. Artificial sensing

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Biomechatronics - Lecture 11. Artificial sensing

  1. 1. BiomechatronicsDelft University of Technology, 2007 Wb 2432 Artificial Sensory Systems Frans van der Helm
  2. 2. Sensing for assistive motor systems
  3. 3. Sensing for assistive motor systems why?
  4. 4. ••• ! • • "• # $
  5. 5. Sensing for assistive motor systems Sensory signals derived from the human body
  6. 6. Sensing for assistive motor systems Angle recording Buttons in crutches sitting stand sit up down standing Standing Step left Standing (right leg (left leg in front) in front) Step right
  7. 7. Measure physiological signals Brain signals EEG Intention detection Think left or right Pfurtscheller et al. (Graz)
  8. 8. Measure physiological signals muscle activation: EMG EMG processing
  9. 9. Intention detection MIT media labs expressive footwear: Measuring motions and forces
  10. 10. Intention detection MIT media labsexpressive footwear Byron in action
  11. 11. Sensing for assistive motor systems • use bodys own sensors and CNS signals • artificial sensors physiological sensors (Sinkjaer et al., Aalborg Universtiy)
  12. 12. • !• % • &
  13. 13. Measure bodys own sensory signals tripolar measurement cuffphysiological sensors (Sinkjaer et al., Aalborg Universtiy)
  14. 14. Measure bodys own sensory signalsskin pressure sensors University of Aalborg
  15. 15. 1. Muscle stimulation2. Neural sensing of tactile stimuli3. Controller4. Spinal cord lesion5. Intent detection
  16. 16. !
  17. 17. !
  18. 18. ! "
  19. 19. ! " #! $ % % # &
  20. 20. !Rutten et al., University of Twente
  21. 21. (• (• ! # % • • ) * • + ,• & • - • • .
  22. 22. Sensing for assistive motor systems Sensory feedback to the user by stimulation of skin sensors sensor Dorindo Buma
  23. 23. Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensory feedback to the user by stimulation of skin sensors Influence of stimulation level on sensation 100 90 20% 50% 80 80% 70 sensation level 60 50 40 30 20 10sensor 0 0 200 400 600 800 time in [s] Dorindo Buma
  24. 24. Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensory feedback to the user by stimulation of skin sensors Influence of intermittent stimulation on sensation 100 C1: continuous C4: ON=0.5 & OFF=0.5 80 C5: ON=0.3 & OFF=0.3 C7: ON=0.1 & OFF=0.1 sensation level 60 40 20sensor 0 0 200 400 600 800 time in [s] Dorindo Buma
  25. 25. " )
  26. 26. " )• ( // • ! • " * • 0 1 33 2 3 4• 5 • • 5 6 • 7* 4 • 5 2 33 8 3 !
  27. 27. * ! ) +- /01 ,. 12
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  29. 29. * ! 3
  30. 30. * ! ! )
  31. 31. ) 44
  32. 32. )! )
  33. 33. * ! )• ( 19 /• - • : • ) • . & ! &• ; 6 < • 9! , • & !
  34. 34. ( )••
  35. 35. Sensing for assistive motor systems • use bodys own sensors and CNS signals • artificial sensors Triaxial accelerometer (Lötters et al., 1998, University of Twente)
  36. 36. Artificial sensors for assistive motor systems force sensors • Interface forces: Force sensitive resistors (FSR) only perpendicular Force sensitive capacitors forces Piezo electric also shear forces ! •Tendon force F • Bending moments E.g. Strain gauges
  37. 37. Artificial sensors for assistive motor systems movement sensors • goniometers • Magnetic sensors Hall effect based joint angle sensor (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland) • Inertial sensors accelerometers gyroscope
  38. 38. Inertial sensingaccelerometer sa = a − g a coriolisRate gyroscope(angular velocity sensor) v m FC = 2mω × v (Coriolis) ω
  39. 39. The human vestibular systemis an 3D inertial sensor system
  40. 40. Inertial sensingUniversity of Twente BIOS group
  41. 41. Detection of postures and movements using uni-axial accelerometersDetector posture - movement Distinguish postures by analysing inclinations of body segmentsExample resultdetection posture - movement radial sacrum tangential thigh(Veltink et al., 1996)
  42. 42. hemiplegic gait: drop foot stimulator accelerometer at shank pu sh -of fd lay ete de cti phase e on tim acceleration [m/s ] 2 swin on desc ase tecti g ph e de endi detectio ng p k -stri artheel n swing phase detection ascending part time (s) Willemsen et al., IEEE-BME, 1990
  43. 43. Inertial sensor: quantitative sensing estimation of orientation signal analysisa 3D rate gyroscope signalsg Kalman optimal filter estimation of orientation signalsω 3D accelerometer (Luinge et al., 1999, University of Twente)
  44. 44. 3D inertial sensor system (accelerometer - rate gyroscope) reconstruction of knee angle during gait Integration gyro signal gyro + accel gonio (reference) (Luinge et al. 1999)Reconstruction of knee angle from 3D inertial sensors on thigh and shank• Sensor axes were directed arbitrarily.• Initial reference measurement with flexing/extending knee required
  45. 45. DiscussionThe best sensor is no sensor??
  46. 46. Discussion The best sensor is no sensor??Sensor and control can result inreproducible, reliable and flexible performance.Challenge: the complexity of the systemas observed by the user should not increase,rather decrease!This is possible:e.g. - intention detection: no explicit commands - sensor in stimulator or orthotic components - choose optimal sensors: small, possibly implantable, giving optimal amount of info
  47. 47. Sensing for assistive motor systems why?
  48. 48. Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensor Physical quantity Transduction principles Interaction with the body CNS signals / muscle activationEEG / MEG Brain signals Electric / Magnetic Electrodes / coilsENG / MNG Signals from nerves Electric / Magnetic Electrodes / coilsEMG / MMG Muscle activation Electric / Magnetic Electrodes / coilsSensor Physical quantity Transduction principles Interaction with the body ForceStrain gauges Strain of material → Resistive/ piezoresistive Attachment on prosthetic / measure for Force / orthotic elements momentPressure sensors Pressure - Force Sensitive resistors Attach between segment (FSR) and environment on - Force Sensitive Capacity contact surfacePhysiological Skin stress (phasic Physiological sensors Derive via electrodesSkin sensors rather than static around sensory nerves components) (Hoffer, Stein et al. 1996; Sinkjaer 1999)
  49. 49. Sensing for assistive motor systemsSensor Physical quantity Transduction principles Interaction with the body MovementGoniometer Joint angle (1, 2 or - Resistive Attach to two segments 3D) - Hall effect + magnet connected by joint (Johnson, Peckham et al. 1999)Orientation Orientation with - Hall effect (earth magnetic Attach sensor to bodysensor respect to earth field) segment coordinate system - inertial: gravity accelerationRate of turn Angular velocity (1 – - inertial, coriolis / Attach to body segmentGyroscope 3D) piezoresistive (Soderkvist (Baten, Oosterhoff et al. 1994) 1996)Accelerometer Acceleration (inertial Inertial / piezoresistive, Attach to body segment + gravitational: 1 – piezoelectric or capacitive 3D) (Lotters, Olthuis et al. 1995)Position sensor - relative distance to - radar using ultrasonic -ultrasonic transmitters / objects in transmitters/sensors (Piezo senors mounted on body environment electric) (Shoval, Borenstein et al. - absolute position in - GPS: Global Positioning 1998) space System using satellite - GPS system mounted on communication body
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