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Chapter 9. Immersed tunnels.
Immersing a tunnel is a method by which the tunnel elements are built in a construction dock and floated to their final destination, where they are immersed. It is a well developed field of study in The
Netherlands. Almost all river crossing tunnels have been realised with this method (an exception in the
Netherlands is the Velser tunnel). The immersed tunnel method is especially suitable for crossings of rivers and canals, but it does not have to be restricted to these, as one can read in this chapter.
The hindrance is restricted to the dredging of the immersion trench, the transportation of the elements, and the immersing operation of the tunnel elements. An advantage of immersed tunnels compared to bored tunnels is that they are situated at a shallower depth. This means the sloped access roads are at shallower depth and the length of the entire tunnel can be much smaller.