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Chapter 7. Tunnels built from ground level.
Tunnels are line-shaped underground civil-technical structures for roads, railways and public transport. They can be built with the techniques discussed in chapter 5, such as the open building pit method,cut-and-cover method, and the pneumatic caisson method. Special techniques in this context are the bored tunnel method and the immersed tunnel method. In this chapter only open building pits will be discussed, for example the ‘cut and cover method’.