Technology Dynamics and TransitionManagement in China Water Problems in Indonesia: the Solo Valley caseProf. Mi JianingSch...
The Hoover DamColorado River, USRealised under bad work conditionsIn the spirit of the time: large governmentalprojectsInf...
January 8, 2010                                                              Flooding 2007                                ...
Water Problems in IndonesiaFloodingHistorical background informationSolo Valley problemsIlluminate the concepts of the mod...
Water Problems in IndonesiaThe Solo ValleyJanuary 8, 2010               5
The Solo ValleySolo Valley: poor region, flood-stricken during west monsoon,   droughts during east monsoonBetween 1 and 2...
The Solo ValleyBackground: Dutch irrigation and flood protectionengineering in IndonesiaIndonesia: 220 million inhabitants...
The Solo ValleyBackground: Dutch civil engineering in Indonesia 1942/9:1.5 million hectares agricultural land with technol...
The Solo ValleyIrrigation and flood control engineering and state formation   …... – 2000: small-scale Javanese irrigation...
Irrigation works in Java,van BlommesteinJanuary 8, 2010             10
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsWork in progress1929                           KITLV 36765January 8, 2010         ...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsDam in theTjisadane RiverWhat you see,from the planewhen you fly intoJakartaConstr...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsDam in theTjisdaneRiverThe samedam,ground levelConstructedin 1934,photo 1995Januar...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsDam in the Tjitaroem RiverConstructed in 1925(photo 1938)                 KITLVJan...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsSketches ofthe firstdam in theSampeanRiverConstructedin 1832January 8, 2010       ...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsThe SampeanRiver- dam withdrainage sluice:how initialsketchesdevelopedConstruction...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsPemali irrigationsystemDevising alarger system toconnectingsystemsConstructed in18...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsAfter constructingmain parts of thestructure (dams,irrigation systems)reservoirs w...
Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsLooking down fromthe reservoir in theprevious slide ontothe head canalleading away...
Irrigation works in JavaProject aimsPlanting out of RiceSeedlings1900                       KITLV 12186January 8, 2010    ...
Irrigation works in JavaProject aimsRice harvest1920                       KITLV 19183January 8, 2010                     ...
Focus: Solo RiverJanuary 8, 2010     22
The Solo ValleySolo Valley: poor region, flood-stricken during west monsoon,   droughts during east monsoon1900 720.000 pe...
The Solo ValleyIrrigation Plan1893-1898 Irrigation Plan    156,000 hectares    weir to force up the waters by 8 m    main ...
The Solo ValleyProjected Place of the Solo WeirJanuary 8, 2010                    25
The Solo ValleySolo Valley WorksJanuary 8, 2010     26
The Solo ValleyConsequencesPlan cancelled for financial, technical and agricultural reasonsIrrigation engineering in crisi...
The Solo ValleySystem AnalysisDevelopment mechanisms•    Momentum: a variety of actors gets involved in system building   ...
The Solo ValleyReverse SalientA reverse salient is a part of the system that is falling behind in its   developmentThe sys...
The Solo ValleyCritical Problems and their SolutionsToo expensive        profitability  distinction profitable-unprofitabl...
The Solo ValleyCritical Problems and their SolutionsToo risky            too big     compartments; laboratory research; in...
The Solo ValleyRegime ShiftTechnical Irrigation Regime transformed into the TechnicalAgricultural Irrigation Regime in the...
The Solo ValleyAlternative: Solo Valley Reservoir PlanCombination of – indigenous inspired – small and big reservoirs;extr...
The Solo ValleyPost-colonial water engineering in the Solo river area 11974 Japanese plan:   30 reservoirs in the river ba...
The Solo ValleyPost-colonial water engineering in the Solo river area 21986 Canadian plan (looked like colonial Dutch plan...
The Solo ValleyPresent Day Solo EngineeringOn top of the many large and small measures until now, a newmaster plan is bein...
The Solo ValleyHow to deal with the Solo Valley problem in terms of thiscourse?Actors    The auspicious Lords of the Water...
The Solo ValleyHow to deal with the Solo Valley problem in terms of thiscourse?Socio-technical water system for irrigation...
The Solo ValleyPlans1974 Japanese plan: 30 reservoirs in the river basin, including four  very big ones, latter for both i...
The Solo ValleyAnalysis and Evaluation of the two Solo Plans                  Japanese Plan 1974                   Canadia...
The Solo ValleyAnalysis and Evaluation of the two Solo Plans                  Japanese Plan 1974                  Canadian...
Group AssignmentPrepare a presentation of your problem analysis andan analysis of the two solution possibilities you propo...
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4 ocw water_problems_in_indonesia

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4 ocw water_problems_in_indonesia

  1. 1. Technology Dynamics and TransitionManagement in China Water Problems in Indonesia: the Solo Valley caseProf. Mi JianingSchool of Management, Harbin Instituteof TechnologyDr Wim RavesteijnSection Technology Dynamics andSustainable Development, faculty ofTechnology, Policy and Management,Delft University of TechnologyJanuary 8, 2010 1
  2. 2. The Hoover DamColorado River, USRealised under bad work conditionsIn the spirit of the time: large governmentalprojectsInfluence of Russian concepts: state interventiontechnocratic hierarchical project, planning,ruthless rule (Stalin’s approach, Roosevelt’s NewDeal)Made the desert bloom and moreIncreased salinity levels in Colorado River waterNegative consequences of big dams in generalinclude: disruption of ecosystems, decline of fish www.usbr.govstocks, forced resettlements and diseaseJanuary 8, 2010 2
  3. 3. January 8, 2010 Flooding 2007 Water Problems in Indonesia http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/thumb/b/b8/Flood_2007_- _Taxi_drowned.jpg/300px-Flood_2007_- _Taxi_drowned.jpg3
  4. 4. Water Problems in IndonesiaFloodingHistorical background informationSolo Valley problemsIlluminate the concepts of the modelNext lecture: specify the model and apply itto present-day Solo Valley problemsJanuary 8, 2010 4
  5. 5. Water Problems in IndonesiaThe Solo ValleyJanuary 8, 2010 5
  6. 6. The Solo ValleySolo Valley: poor region, flood-stricken during west monsoon, droughts during east monsoonBetween 1 and 2 million people, living off rice-farming and fishing.These activities are supported by three big reservoirs and many small reservoirs in the valley; one upstream reservoirJanuary 8, 2010 6
  7. 7. The Solo ValleyBackground: Dutch irrigation and flood protectionengineering in IndonesiaIndonesia: 220 million inhabitants, biggest Muslim country, 13.000islands.Staple: rice. Half of the population engaged in rice-farming. Riceself-sufficiency in the 1990s.Most productive rice-farming uses irrigation. Irrigated rice-farming atleast 2.000 years old.Indonesia has been a Dutch colony: the Netherlands East Indies1600-1800 VOC; 1800-1950: colonial state.January 8, 2010 7
  8. 8. The Solo ValleyBackground: Dutch civil engineering in Indonesia 1942/9:1.5 million hectares agricultural land with technological irrigation anddrainage; in Java and Madura 1.3 million hectares of the 3.3 millionhectares of paddy fields (2/5 of the Netherlands)a road network with 12,000 km of asphalted surface, 41,000 km ofmetalled road area and 16,000 km of unimproved surfaces (1.7 timesthe earth’s circumference)a 5,500 km long network of railway lines in Java and at least 2,000 kmof tracks in Sumatra (the Netherlands: 3,300 km)International harbours in Medan, Batavia (presently Jakarta) andSurabaya140 public, particularly urban drinking water facilities, largely on JavaMany modern bridges carrying roads and railroadsJanuary 8, 2010 8
  9. 9. The Solo ValleyIrrigation and flood control engineering and state formation …... – 2000: small-scale Javanese irrigationEarly colonial state 1800 – 1870: separate works to support exploitationIntermediate colonial state 1870 – 1920: complete systems of irrigation and water control for sugar and riceModern colonial state 1920 – 1950: + refined technical parts based on laboratory researchIndonesian republic 1950 – .….: + interbasin transfer, Integrated River Basin Management, Room for the Water, esp. for riceJanuary 8, 2010 9
  10. 10. Irrigation works in Java,van BlommesteinJanuary 8, 2010 10
  11. 11. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsWork in progress1929 KITLV 36765January 8, 2010 11
  12. 12. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsDam in theTjisadane RiverWhat you see,from the planewhen you fly intoJakartaConstructed in1934, photo 1995January 8, 2010 12
  13. 13. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsDam in theTjisdaneRiverThe samedam,ground levelConstructedin 1934,photo 1995January 8, 2010 13
  14. 14. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsDam in the Tjitaroem RiverConstructed in 1925(photo 1938) KITLVJanuary 8, 2010 14
  15. 15. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsSketches ofthe firstdam in theSampeanRiverConstructedin 1832January 8, 2010 15
  16. 16. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsThe SampeanRiver- dam withdrainage sluice:how initialsketchesdevelopedConstruction in1876 and 1900(photo 1932)January 8, 2010 16
  17. 17. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsPemali irrigationsystemDevising alarger system toconnectingsystemsConstructed in1896January 8, 2010 17
  18. 18. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsAfter constructingmain parts of thestructure (dams,irrigation systems)reservoirs weredeveloped andcreated1931 KITLV 25170January 8, 2010 18
  19. 19. Irrigation works in JavaProject ElementsLooking down fromthe reservoir in theprevious slide ontothe head canalleading away from it1931 KITLV 25171January 8, 2010 19
  20. 20. Irrigation works in JavaProject aimsPlanting out of RiceSeedlings1900 KITLV 12186January 8, 2010 20
  21. 21. Irrigation works in JavaProject aimsRice harvest1920 KITLV 19183January 8, 2010 21
  22. 22. Focus: Solo RiverJanuary 8, 2010 22
  23. 23. The Solo ValleySolo Valley: poor region, flood-stricken during west monsoon, droughts during east monsoon1900 720.000 people, mostly farmers; now between 1 and 2 million. Fishing was another means of sustaining life; there were many fishponds filled with west monsoon water as well as many irrigation reservoirs.January 8, 2010 23
  24. 24. The Solo ValleyIrrigation Plan1893-1898 Irrigation Plan 156,000 hectares weir to force up the waters by 8 m main canal of 165 km network of smaller canals of 900 km redirecting of the Solo, making it flow into the Java Sea, 35 km to the west canal for a shipping and drinking water suppliesJanuary 8, 2010 24
  25. 25. The Solo ValleyProjected Place of the Solo WeirJanuary 8, 2010 25
  26. 26. The Solo ValleySolo Valley WorksJanuary 8, 2010 26
  27. 27. The Solo ValleyConsequencesPlan cancelled for financial, technical and agricultural reasonsIrrigation engineering in crisis: Will the government continue financing irrigation works? Will it maintain Public Works Department?However, no dramatic consequences, because actor involvementassured continuity of irrigation engineeringJanuary 8, 2010 27
  28. 28. The Solo ValleySystem AnalysisDevelopment mechanisms• Momentum: a variety of actors gets involved in system building and makes systems growth quasi-autonomous; socio-technical irrigation and drainage system building had acquired momentum by 1900 in Java• Reverse salientJanuary 8, 2010 28
  29. 29. The Solo ValleyReverse SalientA reverse salient is a part of the system that is falling behind in its developmentThe systems innovative capabilities are directed towards occurring reverse salientsTo attack them successfully, reverse salients have to be reformulated as critical problemsSolo Valley formed a reverse salient in the irrigation engineering activities: project considered too expensive, too risky, too complicatedJanuary 8, 2010 29
  30. 30. The Solo ValleyCritical Problems and their SolutionsToo expensive profitability distinction profitable-unprofitable with extra $ for unprofitable works; step-wise/piecemeal engineering; agricultural research into the significance of silt; reservoirs ( multi-purpose reservoirs, inter-basin transfer)Too complicated how to coordinate agricultural activities irrigation management, culture plans ( water authorities, water users associations)January 8, 2010 30
  31. 31. The Solo ValleyCritical Problems and their SolutionsToo risky too big compartments; laboratory research; indigenous reservoir technologies; big reservoirs ( multi-purpose reservoirs)N.B. Turning reverse salients into critical problems involves expert interpretations and actor perceptionsJanuary 8, 2010 31
  32. 32. The Solo ValleyRegime ShiftTechnical Irrigation Regime transformed into the TechnicalAgricultural Irrigation Regime in the 1870-1920 period in IndonesiaMain difference: agricultural considerations, brought in by a new(expert) actor: agricultural engineersSolo Valley works contributed to this regime shift and was alsostopped because of this regime shiftJanuary 8, 2010 32
  33. 33. The Solo ValleyAlternative: Solo Valley Reservoir PlanCombination of – indigenous inspired – small and big reservoirs;extra money because works not profitable; new forms of cooperationand managementHowever, dramatic situation continued; the original Solo Valley Planremained in discussion till the end of the colonial period and up tothis day!January 8, 2010 33
  34. 34. The Solo ValleyPost-colonial water engineering in the Solo river area 11974 Japanese plan: 30 reservoirs in the river basin, including four very big ones; irrigation for rice and maize!Problems: too expensive, also because of ‘transmigrasi’ costs transmigrasi socially unacceptable for foreign financiers reservoirs taboo (no -global- social support) two provinces involved, unequal costs and benefits river basin managementResult: only one big reservoirs builtJanuary 8, 2010 34
  35. 35. The Solo ValleyPost-colonial water engineering in the Solo river area 21986 Canadian plan (looked like colonial Dutch plan): new big reservoir, drainage canal to Java Sea, turning a swamp into a reservoir to temporally store water (‘room for the water’)Problem: new big reservoirResult: only drainage canal has been builtJanuary 8, 2010 35
  36. 36. The Solo ValleyPresent Day Solo EngineeringOn top of the many large and small measures until now, a newmaster plan is being prepared, including a series rubber dams andthe Canadian water store reservoirJanuary 8, 2010 36
  37. 37. The Solo ValleyHow to deal with the Solo Valley problem in terms of thiscourse?Actors The auspicious Lords of the Waters! Floods create fertility Local people asked the government (in the 1990s) to continue Dutch project! Droughts? Political system does not facilitate participation, though world opinions have great influence Transmigration. Good or bad?January 8, 2010 37
  38. 38. The Solo ValleyHow to deal with the Solo Valley problem in terms of thiscourse?Socio-technical water system for irrigation, transportation, drinking water, industry, electrification, tourism / locally works from various plans push for works that link up with existing infrastructureTechnological regime: ‘Totalitarian hydraulic management’ (control every drop), Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM: multi- purpose reservoirs, basin wide approach, regional development) Room for the Water old or new?January 8, 2010 38
  39. 39. The Solo ValleyPlans1974 Japanese plan: 30 reservoirs in the river basin, including four very big ones, latter for both irrigation and electricity; irrigation for rice and maize!1986 Canadian plan (looked like colonial Dutch plan): new big (multi-purpose) reservoir, drainage canal to the Java Sea, turning a swamp into a reservoir to temporally store water (‘room for the water’), rehabilitationsJanuary 8, 2010 39
  40. 40. The Solo ValleyAnalysis and Evaluation of the two Solo Plans Japanese Plan 1974 Canadian Plan 1986Actors Large variety of water users Farmers and citizens in the valleyIncremental System growth through System innovating marsh-or radical increasing number of (multi- reservoir, reflects new Room for purpose) reservoirs, based on the Water regime existing totalitarian & IRBM water control regimeSafety -Risk of large dams -Would not solve all the problemsSustain- +Cropping pattern based on + Natural solution for storingability natural possibilities (maize) water through upgrading a -Highly controlled environment swamp -Large use of scarce water resources (salty soils, desert formation)January 8, 2010 40
  41. 41. The Solo ValleyAnalysis and Evaluation of the two Solo Plans Japanese Plan 1974 Canadian Plan 1986 Ethics +High development potential -Low development potential (electricity) Social - Transmigration -Local population could suffer actors +Employment possibilities from continued flooding -Artificial fertilizers should be +Silt fertilizes soils bought Advice 5- / 3+ / Easy to implement, 3- / 2+ / fits in long-term, good for development, short nature-based development term solution N.B. Costs are only secondarily Preferred Solution consideredJanuary 8, 2010 41
  42. 42. Group AssignmentPrepare a presentation of your problem analysis andan analysis of the two solution possibilities you propose.January 8, 2010 42

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