Flood defence systems in urban areasProf. drs ir J.K. Vrijlingdr ir B. StalenbergSection of Hydraulic EngineeringFaculty o...
Land below sea level
DevelopmentsNature• climate changes     • higher discharges     • more extreme storms     • sea level rise• sinking of soil
DevelopmentsNature                      Civilisation•climate changes            • larger population → higher density     •...
DevelopmentsNature                            Civilisation• climate changes                 • larger population → higher d...
Flood protectionRiver                          Sea• strengthening of the flood   • strengthening of the sea        defence...
Reducing the loadsOutside the dike                 Inside the dike•   closing the estuary          •   dike realignment•  ...
Historical development in the Netherlands
Dike cross section• Sea dike   • High waves   • Short duration   • Salt water (no grass cover)• Estuary dike• River dike  ...
Dike cross section sea dike revetment               Grass cover   1:6 or 8                   1:3                          ...
Dike cross section estuary dike revetment               Grass cover   1:6                     1:3                         ...
Dike cross section river dike                   Grass cover      Clay layer     1:2                         1:3 1:4       ...
Dike cross sections• Relation dike design and failure mechanisms
Failure-mechanisms
Damming estuaries
“River” damSystem:• Dam• Discharge sluice• Shipping lockFunction:•   Prevent flooding by storm surges•   Shorten Coastline...
Many instances:• 1270     Amster      dam• 1240     Rotter      dam• 1248     Spaarn      dam           Zwammer     dam• ~...
1916
Enclosure dike Zuiderzee 75 years old
Enkhuizen
Floodwalls on the quay
Delta Project 1960
Storm surge barrier Eastern ScheldtSystem:• Dams• Storm surge barrier• Shipping lockFunction:•   Prevent flooding•   Prese...
Opening ceremony 1986 & functioning
Zierikzee
Damming the lauwerszee• Recreational park• Port cities restored
Cardiff Bay Barrage system
Cardiff Bay mudflats before the barrage was built
Cardiff Bay Barrage system
Trends in functions•   Flood protection•   Land reclamation•   Fresh water preservation•   Facilitate shipping• Protect en...
Damming Rijnmond• Taming water in Rijnmond• Safety and urban waterfront development
Waterfront Dordrecht
Utrecht on de Old Rhine
Open/gesloten RijnmondBeweegbare kering
Waterslot
Flood defencesCharacteristics• specific dimensions: height and width• location• costsexamples: dikes, quay wallsStrengthen...
Urban flood defence
Green river
Green river              Q                            Q     Q0                      Q1                           he1      ...
Green river: adaptation length             Q                          h                                         Q     Q0  ...
Green river: sedimentation                                          hgr,t>0    Qgr,t>0                Qgr,t=0      hgr,t=0...
Current issuereducing the loads                   strengthening of                                     the flood defences ...
Multi-functional flood defencesreckon with•   safety•   maintenance•   property rights•   surroundingsfuture strengthening...
Simple examples of multiple use• Automatic floating wall (Kampen)• Houses built in flood defence (Dordrecht)• Westkeetshav...
Automatic floating wall (Kampen)
Houses in flood defence (Dordrecht)
Westkeetshaven (Zwijndrecht)
Possibilities of multiple use                                    houses                                     offices       ...
Possibilities of multi use                   houses      promenade     shops        promenade          SSL                ...
Sea defence
Possibilities of multi useDe Muralt muur          SSL    SWL
Possibilities of multi use                                 houses                                  offices          SSL   ...
Possibilities of multi use                     houses                 restaurants/cafes         SSL                     pa...
Conquering the sea again• Completed plan “IJmuiden”• Plan “Waterman” et al.• Plan “New Venice”
Plan “IJmuiden”
Plan “Waterman et al.”
Venice
Venice city in a shallow sea
Plan “New Venice”
2011 vrijling flood defence systems
2011 vrijling flood defence systems
2011 vrijling flood defence systems
2011 vrijling flood defence systems
2011 vrijling flood defence systems
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2011 vrijling flood defence systems

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2011 vrijling flood defence systems

  1. 1. Flood defence systems in urban areasProf. drs ir J.K. Vrijlingdr ir B. StalenbergSection of Hydraulic EngineeringFaculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesDelft University of Technology
  2. 2. Land below sea level
  3. 3. DevelopmentsNature• climate changes • higher discharges • more extreme storms • sea level rise• sinking of soil
  4. 4. DevelopmentsNature Civilisation•climate changes • larger population → higher density •higher discharges • more companies •more extreme storms • more infrastructure •sea level rise result: higher value of the area•sinking of soil
  5. 5. DevelopmentsNature Civilisation• climate changes • larger population → higher density • higher discharges • more companies • more extreme storms • more infrastructure • sea level rise result: higher value of the area• sinking of soil Current tendency increasing risk aversion
  6. 6. Flood protectionRiver Sea• strengthening of the flood • strengthening of the sea defences defences• reducing the loads • reducing the loads → difficult
  7. 7. Reducing the loadsOutside the dike Inside the dike• closing the estuary • dike realignment• lowering of the floodplain • flood way alias green river• deepening of the riverbed • side channel• lowering of the groyne • retention areas
  8. 8. Historical development in the Netherlands
  9. 9. Dike cross section• Sea dike • High waves • Short duration • Salt water (no grass cover)• Estuary dike• River dike • Small waves • Long duration • Fresh water (grass cover)
  10. 10. Dike cross section sea dike revetment Grass cover 1:6 or 8 1:3 Clay layer core Sub-soil
  11. 11. Dike cross section estuary dike revetment Grass cover 1:6 1:3 Clay layer core Sub-soil
  12. 12. Dike cross section river dike Grass cover Clay layer 1:2 1:3 1:4 core Sub-soil
  13. 13. Dike cross sections• Relation dike design and failure mechanisms
  14. 14. Failure-mechanisms
  15. 15. Damming estuaries
  16. 16. “River” damSystem:• Dam• Discharge sluice• Shipping lockFunction:• Prevent flooding by storm surges• Shorten Coastline• Limit salt intrusion• Preserve fresh water• Discharge river flow• Let shipping pass
  17. 17. Many instances:• 1270 Amster dam• 1240 Rotter dam• 1248 Spaarn dam Zwammer dam• ~ 1300 Monnicken dam• ~ 1300 E dam Alblasser dam• 1258 Schie dam
  18. 18. 1916
  19. 19. Enclosure dike Zuiderzee 75 years old
  20. 20. Enkhuizen
  21. 21. Floodwalls on the quay
  22. 22. Delta Project 1960
  23. 23. Storm surge barrier Eastern ScheldtSystem:• Dams• Storm surge barrier• Shipping lockFunction:• Prevent flooding• Preserve environment (nature and culture)• Preserve shell fish industry• Let shipping pass• Road connection “Closed and open at the same time”
  24. 24. Opening ceremony 1986 & functioning
  25. 25. Zierikzee
  26. 26. Damming the lauwerszee• Recreational park• Port cities restored
  27. 27. Cardiff Bay Barrage system
  28. 28. Cardiff Bay mudflats before the barrage was built
  29. 29. Cardiff Bay Barrage system
  30. 30. Trends in functions• Flood protection• Land reclamation• Fresh water preservation• Facilitate shipping• Protect environment:• Create environment:• Create amenity
  31. 31. Damming Rijnmond• Taming water in Rijnmond• Safety and urban waterfront development
  32. 32. Waterfront Dordrecht
  33. 33. Utrecht on de Old Rhine
  34. 34. Open/gesloten RijnmondBeweegbare kering
  35. 35. Waterslot
  36. 36. Flood defencesCharacteristics• specific dimensions: height and width• location• costsexamples: dikes, quay wallsStrengthening• heightening• widening
  37. 37. Urban flood defence
  38. 38. Green river
  39. 39. Green river Q Q Q0 Q1 he1 Q0 h0 x0 x l
  40. 40. Green river: adaptation length Q h Q Q0 Q1 h he1 Q0 h0 x0 x l
  41. 41. Green river: sedimentation hgr,t>0 Qgr,t>0 Qgr,t=0 hgr,t=0 l l A green river becomes less effective in time
  42. 42. Current issuereducing the loads strengthening of the flood defences limited spacenature development only losses ?
  43. 43. Multi-functional flood defencesreckon with• safety• maintenance• property rights• surroundingsfuture strengthening• technical issues• legal issues
  44. 44. Simple examples of multiple use• Automatic floating wall (Kampen)• Houses built in flood defence (Dordrecht)• Westkeetshaven (Zwijndrecht)
  45. 45. Automatic floating wall (Kampen)
  46. 46. Houses in flood defence (Dordrecht)
  47. 47. Westkeetshaven (Zwijndrecht)
  48. 48. Possibilities of multiple use houses offices SSL shops SWL restaurants/cafes city park promenade traffic road parking
  49. 49. Possibilities of multi use houses promenade shops promenade SSL parking SWL traffic road
  50. 50. Sea defence
  51. 51. Possibilities of multi useDe Muralt muur SSL SWL
  52. 52. Possibilities of multi use houses offices SSL shops SWL restaurants/cafes SSL city park promenade traffic road SWL parking
  53. 53. Possibilities of multi use houses restaurants/cafes SSL parking SWL
  54. 54. Conquering the sea again• Completed plan “IJmuiden”• Plan “Waterman” et al.• Plan “New Venice”
  55. 55. Plan “IJmuiden”
  56. 56. Plan “Waterman et al.”
  57. 57. Venice
  58. 58. Venice city in a shallow sea
  59. 59. Plan “New Venice”
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