2011 vrijling flood defence systems
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2011 vrijling flood defence systems Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Flood defence systems in urban areasProf. drs ir J.K. Vrijlingdr ir B. StalenbergSection of Hydraulic EngineeringFaculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesDelft University of Technology
  • 2. Land below sea level
  • 3. DevelopmentsNature• climate changes • higher discharges • more extreme storms • sea level rise• sinking of soil
  • 4. DevelopmentsNature Civilisation•climate changes • larger population → higher density •higher discharges • more companies •more extreme storms • more infrastructure •sea level rise result: higher value of the area•sinking of soil
  • 5. DevelopmentsNature Civilisation• climate changes • larger population → higher density • higher discharges • more companies • more extreme storms • more infrastructure • sea level rise result: higher value of the area• sinking of soil Current tendency increasing risk aversion
  • 6. Flood protectionRiver Sea• strengthening of the flood • strengthening of the sea defences defences• reducing the loads • reducing the loads → difficult
  • 7. Reducing the loadsOutside the dike Inside the dike• closing the estuary • dike realignment• lowering of the floodplain • flood way alias green river• deepening of the riverbed • side channel• lowering of the groyne • retention areas
  • 8. Historical development in the Netherlands
  • 9. Dike cross section• Sea dike • High waves • Short duration • Salt water (no grass cover)• Estuary dike• River dike • Small waves • Long duration • Fresh water (grass cover)
  • 10. Dike cross section sea dike revetment Grass cover 1:6 or 8 1:3 Clay layer core Sub-soil
  • 11. Dike cross section estuary dike revetment Grass cover 1:6 1:3 Clay layer core Sub-soil
  • 12. Dike cross section river dike Grass cover Clay layer 1:2 1:3 1:4 core Sub-soil
  • 13. Dike cross sections• Relation dike design and failure mechanisms
  • 14. Failure-mechanisms
  • 15. Damming estuaries
  • 16. “River” damSystem:• Dam• Discharge sluice• Shipping lockFunction:• Prevent flooding by storm surges• Shorten Coastline• Limit salt intrusion• Preserve fresh water• Discharge river flow• Let shipping pass
  • 17. Many instances:• 1270 Amster dam• 1240 Rotter dam• 1248 Spaarn dam Zwammer dam• ~ 1300 Monnicken dam• ~ 1300 E dam Alblasser dam• 1258 Schie dam
  • 18. 1916
  • 19. Enclosure dike Zuiderzee 75 years old
  • 20. Enkhuizen
  • 21. Floodwalls on the quay
  • 22. Delta Project 1960
  • 23. Storm surge barrier Eastern ScheldtSystem:• Dams• Storm surge barrier• Shipping lockFunction:• Prevent flooding• Preserve environment (nature and culture)• Preserve shell fish industry• Let shipping pass• Road connection “Closed and open at the same time”
  • 24. Opening ceremony 1986 & functioning
  • 25. Zierikzee
  • 26. Damming the lauwerszee• Recreational park• Port cities restored
  • 27. Cardiff Bay Barrage system
  • 28. Cardiff Bay mudflats before the barrage was built
  • 29. Cardiff Bay Barrage system
  • 30. Trends in functions• Flood protection• Land reclamation• Fresh water preservation• Facilitate shipping• Protect environment:• Create environment:• Create amenity
  • 31. Damming Rijnmond• Taming water in Rijnmond• Safety and urban waterfront development
  • 32. Waterfront Dordrecht
  • 33. Utrecht on de Old Rhine
  • 34. Open/gesloten RijnmondBeweegbare kering
  • 35. Waterslot
  • 36. Flood defencesCharacteristics• specific dimensions: height and width• location• costsexamples: dikes, quay wallsStrengthening• heightening• widening
  • 37. Urban flood defence
  • 38. Green river
  • 39. Green river Q Q Q0 Q1 he1 Q0 h0 x0 x l
  • 40. Green river: adaptation length Q h Q Q0 Q1 h he1 Q0 h0 x0 x l
  • 41. Green river: sedimentation hgr,t>0 Qgr,t>0 Qgr,t=0 hgr,t=0 l l A green river becomes less effective in time
  • 42. Current issuereducing the loads strengthening of the flood defences limited spacenature development only losses ?
  • 43. Multi-functional flood defencesreckon with• safety• maintenance• property rights• surroundingsfuture strengthening• technical issues• legal issues
  • 44. Simple examples of multiple use• Automatic floating wall (Kampen)• Houses built in flood defence (Dordrecht)• Westkeetshaven (Zwijndrecht)
  • 45. Automatic floating wall (Kampen)
  • 46. Houses in flood defence (Dordrecht)
  • 47. Westkeetshaven (Zwijndrecht)
  • 48. Possibilities of multiple use houses offices SSL shops SWL restaurants/cafes city park promenade traffic road parking
  • 49. Possibilities of multi use houses promenade shops promenade SSL parking SWL traffic road
  • 50. Sea defence
  • 51. Possibilities of multi useDe Muralt muur SSL SWL
  • 52. Possibilities of multi use houses offices SSL shops SWL restaurants/cafes SSL city park promenade traffic road SWL parking
  • 53. Possibilities of multi use houses restaurants/cafes SSL parking SWL
  • 54. Conquering the sea again• Completed plan “IJmuiden”• Plan “Waterman” et al.• Plan “New Venice”
  • 55. Plan “IJmuiden”
  • 56. Plan “Waterman et al.”
  • 57. Venice
  • 58. Venice city in a shallow sea
  • 59. Plan “New Venice”