2011 bianca stalenberg flood defences_kl

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  • 1. multifunctional and adaptable flood defencesdr. ir. Bianca Stalenberg rps.nl
  • 2. Contents (History of ) the Dutch river landscape Dutch safety policy Floods and countermeasures RPS projects on dike improvement Overview of flood retaining structures Multifunctional and Adaptable Flood Defences rps.nl
  • 3. The Dutch river landscape –ancientAlready in ancient times, many people were drawn towards rivers: food – nourishment of crops food – fish / drinking water transportation possibilities flood protection by living on river dunes rps.nl
  • 4. The Dutch river landscape –todayToday, waterfronts are especially attractive forthe construction of luxurious houses andrecreational activities.Water is not only our friend during sunny days,but also our enemy during stormy days.Flood disasters happen all over the planet;every year. rps.nl
  • 5. 1Four large rivers with estuary in the Netherlands:Ems, Scheldt, Meuse, Rhine 1 2 3 425 % below mean sea level65 % will be flooded without flood protection: 4 9 million people 70 % of Gross Domestic Product 3 2 rps.nl
  • 6. Four large rivers with estuary in the Netherlands:Ems, Scheldt, Meuse, Rhine25 % below mean sea level65 % will be flooded without flood protection: 9 million people 70 % of Gross Domestic Product rps.nl
  • 7. The Netherlands is a rather flat country.Lowest point is found in the city of Rotterdam:6.7 meters below mean sea level.Highest point is found in north east of the Netherlands:322.5 meters above mean sea level. rps.nl
  • 8. Dutch safety policyUntil the beginning of the twentieth century dikes were improved afterevery flood disaster.This approach was changed due to severe floods of 1926 and 1953.The Delta Commission advised to implement a new system ofprotection based on probabilities. rps.nl
  • 9. An area should be protected for a flood event in which theflood level has a certain probability of exceeding. The floodsafety level is set by the government.Safety levels in the NetherlandsZuid-Holland/Noord-Holland: 1/10,000 per yearZeeland/Groningen/Friesland/Flevoland: 1/4,000 per yearRiver landscape: 1/1,250 per yearrisk = probability X consequence rps.nl
  • 10. Climate changeThe probability of a flood can increase due to several physicalprocesses.Changes in temperature are expected to cause changes inprecipitation and evaporation.More extreme events with heavy storms, downpours and snow fall, butalso extreme droughts are likely to be related to the increase of theaverage temperature.Additionally, changes in sea level are also a well known concern.risk = probability X consequence rps.nl
  • 11. Economic developmentThe risk of a flood has significantly increased due to economicprocesses during the last century. This is mainly due to twodevelopments.The first development is the increase in population in urban areas andthe increase of the economic value of urban areas.The second development is the transformation of rural land into urbanland. This resulted in a drastic decrease of surface water that had itseffect on storm water storage.risk = probability X consequence rps.nl
  • 12. Ruimte voor de rivier rps.nl
  • 13. rps.nl
  • 14. rps.nl
  • 15. rps.nl
  • 16. Dike relocationNijmegen – Lent (NL)The room for the river policy creates a shift from traditionaldike improvement towards spatial measures.Aim is to cope with an increase in discharge without anincreasing water level. rps.nl
  • 17. In 2008 the Commissie Veerman advised the government on theprotection of the Netherlands against the consequences of climatechange. Questions were answered about how to organise thelandscape of the Netherlands so that it: is climate proof for many years; is protected against floods; remains an attractive country to live, work, recreate and invest in.Recommendations3. Developments in areas outside the dike rings must not influence the discharge capacity of the river negatively.4. The safety in coastal zones has to be realised with artificial nourishment of sand, broadening the coast line.10. An investigation has to be started to see if the area Rijnmond is suitable for closure on demand. This will create the possibility of combining functions like safety, fresh water storage, urban development and nature development. rps.nl
  • 18. As reaction on this advice, the Dutch government launched a national water plan at the end of 2008. The Dutch government stated that the policy on water safety should be based on risk based management. Aim of the Dutch government was to develop a sustainable approach which was done by introducing three layers.1. Measures for prevention of floods which was still seen as the highest priority for flood management. This layer aimed at a reduction of the flood risk by reducing the probability.2. Sustainable spatial planning in which the threat of flooding obtained a prominent role. Taking flood risk into account in spatial planning would reduce the amount of damage and casualties of a flood.3. Organisational measures during flood disasters. This layer aimed at a reduction of the flood risk by reducing the consequences. rps.nl
  • 19. Wim Kuijken DeltacommissarisThe Delta Programme of the Dutch government desires asafe and appealing Netherland, today and in the future.This programme investigates 5 important decisions:1. Update of safety levels;2. development of an approach to enable sufficient fresh water;3. a decision about the water level at IJsselmeer;4. a decision about the protection of Rijn-Maasdelta (Rijnmond);5. a national policy on (re)developement of urban areas. rps.nl
  • 20. floods and counter measuresstorm surge pluvial floods fluvial floods rps.nl
  • 21. Storm surge rps.nl
  • 22. rps.nl
  • 23. Storm surgeMaeslantkering Rotterdam rps.nl
  • 24. Pluvial floods rps.nl
  • 25. rps.nl
  • 26. Pluvial floodsParking Museumpark Rotterdam rps.nl
  • 27. Fluvial floods rps.nl
  • 28. rps.nl
  • 29. Fluvial floods in urban areas rps.nl
  • 30. rps.nl
  • 31. Fluvial floodsDakpark Rotterdam rps.nl
  • 32. Bergambacht-Ammerstol-SchoonhovenRPS projects on dike improvements rps.nl
  • 33. Veender- en LijkerpolderRPS projects on dike improvements rps.nl
  • 34. storm surge pluvial floods fluvial floods rps.nl
  • 35. Flood retaining structures classification system rps.nl
  • 36. 1. Earth structures These structures are weight structures which are naturally formed by morphology or which are constructed with mainly earth materials.2. Special water retaining structures These structures are used in areas where other functions are present causing insufficient space for earth structures.3. Hydraulic artefacts These structures are mainly applied at utilitarian crossings and cause gaps in the flood defence. Examples are structures for navigation and water management. rps.nl
  • 37. a. Temporary structures These structures are only placed and used during a short period of time. They are stored elsewhere.b. Permanent movable structures These structures are constructed at location and cannot be stored elsewhere. The structures are (partly) movable which minimizes the hinder for other activities during normal circumstances.c. Permanent immovable structures These structures are constructed at location and cannot be stored elsewhere. They are not movable and therefore always present in the urban realm.d. Combined structures These structures are a combination of the above mentioned structures. rps.nl
  • 38. rps.nl
  • 39. I. water - earth rps.nl
  • 40. SpecificationsMaterial core Clay or sandMaterial Clay or sand with turf / asphalt /revetment block revetmentRetaining Dimensions and shape of the crossprinciples sectionDimensions B = large, needs space h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability Coastal shore line, river shore line, lakes, channels, polders dikes rps.nl
  • 41. I. water - earth rps.nl
  • 42. SpecificationsMaterial Bag: jute or synthetic material Filling: sandRetaining Dimensions and shape of crossprinciples sectionDimensions B = medium, depending on the height difference h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability At every transition zone with enough space for piling up sand bags rps.nl
  • 43. I. water - earth rps.nl
  • 44. SpecificationsMaterial SteelRetaining Dimensions and shape of the crossprinciples sectionDimensions B = medium h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability Locations with paved surface and easy access for usage gate flood defences rps.nl
  • 45. I. water - earth rps.nl
  • 46. SpecificationsMaterial Wall: steel (sheet pile) or concrete (e.g. slurry wall) or wood Anchor (e.g. screw anchors or grout anchors)Retaining Drive depth of wall in combinationprinciples with earth pressureDimensions B = very small (without earth section) h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability At every transition zone with space for anchors: often applied in harbour areas slender retaining walls rps.nl
  • 47. SpecificationsMaterial Concrete caisson / cofferdam / wall: concrete or bricks Subsoil foundation or pile foundation Cut offRetaining Wall: weight of structure / pileprinciples foundation Cut off: expansion of saturation line due to its lengthDimensions B = medium width, according to demanded safety level h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability At every transition zone with space: often applied in harbour areas gravity dams rps.nl
  • 48. SpecificationsMaterial Wall: concrete Pile foundation Cut offRetaining Wall: weight of structure combinedprinciples with earth and foundation Cut off: expansion of saturation line due to its lengthDimensions B = medium width, according to demanded safety level h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability At every transition zone: often applied in harbour areas L-shaped walls rps.nl
  • 49. I. water - earth rps.nl
  • 50. SpecificationsMaterial Wood (in combination with horse manure) Aluminium with rubber profilesRetaining Extension of the permanentprinciples structures: Drive depth of the structure in combination with earth pressureDimensions B = small h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability In gaps caused by cross roads In gaps caused by buildings In combination with dikes and quays to gain extra height stop logs at cross roads rps.nl
  • 51. SpecificationsMaterial Wood (in combination with horse manure) Aluminium with rubber profilesRetaining Extension of the permanentprinciples structures: Drive depth of the structure in combination with earth pressureDimensions B = small h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability In gaps caused by cross roads In gaps caused by buildings In combination with dikes and quays to gain extra height stop logs at doorways rps.nl
  • 52. SpecificationsMaterial Wood (in combination with horse manure) Aluminium with rubber profilesRetaining Extension of the permanentprinciples structures: Drive depth of the structure in combination with earth pressureDimensions B = small h = according to demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability In gaps caused by cross roads In gaps caused by buildings In combination with dikes and quays to gain extra height stop logs at line elements rps.nl
  • 53. II. water - water rps.nl
  • 54. SpecificationsMaterial Sheet piles (concrete or steel) in combination with earthRetaining Vertical waterproof wall withprinciples enough length to provide sufficient stabilityDimensions B = small h = according the demanded safety level L = flexible line elementApplicability In areas with difference in height of water and / or earth cofferdams rps.nl
  • 55. II. water - water rps.nl
  • 56. SpecificationsMaterial Concrete / steel / fabricRetaining Weight of the structure / pileprinciples foundation in combination with gatesDimensions B = medium / large, depending on the gate h = according to the storm level and crest of surrounding dikes L = large, depending on the canal widthApplicability At transition zones of river – sea or river - lake storm surge barriers rps.nl
  • 57. dikes high grounds quays cofferdams sandbags floodproof houses earth dams gate flood defencesHow can synergy be realised and maintained between the technical function of flood protection and urban functions in the shared realm of an urban riverfront? stairs stop logs fortification storm surge barriers dams rps.nl
  • 58. The flood wall provides sufficient protection against flood water.The flood wall causes visual and physical hinder for the urban area directly behind thestructure.There is a conflict between urban functions and flood protection. Tokyo (Japan) rps.nl
  • 59. The quay provides insufficient protection against flood water.The quay is fully integrated in the urban activities and provides an added value to the area.The combination of urban functions and flood protection create synergy. Venice (Italy) rps.nl
  • 60. The dike provides sufficient protection against flood water.The dike causes a physical and visual barrier for the adjacent urban areas.There is a conflict between urban functions and flood protection. Tiel (the Netherlands) rps.nl
  • 61. dikes high grounds quays cofferdams sandbags floodproof houses earth dams gate flood defencesHow can synergy be realised and maintained between the technical function of flood protection and urban functions in the shared realm of an urban riverfront? stairs stop logs fortification storm surge barriers dams The AFD concept rps.nl
  • 62. AFD concept - multifunctionalThe AFD concept aims to integrate several functions into one multifunctional structure.The AFD concept does not hinder urban development, because the multifunctionalstructures are useful to flood controllers and to the public. The existing conflict betweenurban functions and flood protection is decreased. The feature ‘multifunctional’ of theAFD concept enables physical synergy in an urban riverfront. rps.nl
  • 63. “Dordtse Wand” – Dordrecht (NL) rps.nl
  • 64. “Westkeetshaven” – Zwijndrecht (NL) rps.nl
  • 65. “HafenCity” – Hamburg (D) rps.nl
  • 66. AFD concept - adaptableCreating physical synergy in an urban riverfront should not be a snapshot, but asustainable affair.The AFD concept applies to multifunctional flood defences which are adaptable.The feature ‘adaptability of the AFD concept maintains physical synergy in an urbanriverfront.This could lead to sustainable structures which anticipate on uncertainties of for instanceclimate change or change in urban functions.The AFD concept can contain three types of adaptability:• Extension• Over capacity• Refurbishment rps.nl
  • 67. AFD concept – adaptable – extensionThis type implies easy expansion of a multifunctional flood defense in the future byconstructing a larger foundation than initially needed.The structural redundant capacity will allow an increase in the volume of themultifunctional and adaptable structure when for instance the river discharges increasesor the economic value of the hinterland increases. rps.nl
  • 68. “Adaptable building” – Deventer (NL) rps.nl
  • 69. AFD concept – adaptable – over capacityThis type implies oversizing so expansion or reconstruction of a multifunctional flooddefense due to increasing flood discharges or due to population growth becomesunnecessary.This is achieved by constructing urban elements with flood retaining abilities, when thedimensions of these urban elements are bigger than the initially needed dimensions forflood protection purposes. rps.nl
  • 70. “Super levee” – Tokyo (J) rps.nl
  • 71. AFD concept – adaptable – refurbishmentThis type implies refurbishment of a multifunctional structure so that the technical lifespancan be extended without alteration in functions which applies to both urban elements andflood retaining elements.Elements that tend to exceed their technical lifespan are replaced by taking thetechnological possibilities and building regulations of the future into account.Refurbishment is purely driven by the technical performance of the structure and not byexternal factors such as climate change or economic changes rps.nl
  • 72. Refurbishment of facade rps.nl
  • 73. Possible types easy water water building moving building urban dike super quay moving objects rps.nl
  • 74. AFD concept – technical aspectsNo flood retaining structure can provide a 100 percent safety against floods.They are designed according to a specific flood event of which the government hasdecided that this event is the upper boundary for flood safety.Additional safety can be realized by taking damage mitigation measures.The reliability of a flood retaining structure depends on movability.Human error can cause failure of the flood retaining structure before the desired safetylevel is reached.This is also applies to multifunctional and adaptable flood defenses. rps.nl
  • 75. AFD concept – technical aspectsCan urban elements increase the technical performance of the flood retaining elements ofa multifunctional flood defence? rps.nl
  • 76. AFD concept – sustainability rps.nl
  • 77. AFD concept – financial aspectsmultifunctionalThe construction of a multifunctional flood defense is more expensive than theconstruction of a conventional flood defense, because it contains both flood retainingelements and urban elements.The construction of a multifunctional flood defense could only be financially successful if itwere realized by financial support of different stakeholders.Project developers could be interested in a joint project because the presence of watercould create an added value in residential areas.Water can have a conservative added value of• 10 - 15 percent for the seashore,• 5 - 10 percent for river locations• 5 percent for lakes.Flood events can have a negative impact of 0 - 22 percent. rps.nl
  • 78. AFD concept – financial aspectsadaptableAim of the AFD concept is to provide a positive financial end result by investing moremoney into the flood retaining elements at the initial phase so money could be saved inthe future.The financial feasibility is at risk in case of lack of social support or financial support whenfuture improvements of the flood retaining elements are necessary.It is crucial not to look at purely costs, but also at the benefits!!! rps.nl
  • 79. ‘Urban Flood Protection Matrix’ toolThe aim of the UFPM tool is to achieve that flood controllers and urban planners workmore closely together in the design process of an urban riverfront.
  • 80. score is opgebouwd uit:Q 1. visuele hinder van de kademuurQ 2. fysieke hinder van de kademuurQ 3. bijdrage aan de stedelijke kwaliteitQ 4. rivierfronten tussen rivier en kademuurQ 5. frequentie and duur van hoogwater
  • 81. score is opgebouwd uit:Q 1. bereikbaarheid van de kademuurQ 2. zichtbaarheid van de kademuurQ 3. tastbaarheid van de kademuur
  • 82. score is opgebouwd uit:Q 1. materiaal van de kademuurQ 2. beweegbare / tijdelijke elementenQ 3. mechanische rotatie / plaatsing of menselijk handelen
  • 83. More informationDissertation can be downloaded from:http://repository.tudelft.nlDecision support system UFPM can be consulted at:http://www.urbanriverfronts.comFor further questions you can reach me at:RPS advies- en ingenieursbureau bvTeam WaterkeringenElektronicaweg 22628 XG DELFTM. 06-11 599 719E. bianca.stalenberg@rps.nl rps.nl