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2009 april water_governance_in_nl_theo_toonen


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  • 1. How does a Metropolis below Sea Level cope with adapting to Climate Change? Watermanagement in the NL Theo Toonen Dean, Faculty of Technology, Policy, Management Delft University of Technology Chair in PA Delft & Leiden U.
  • 2. ‘A DifferentApproach toWater’ Watermanagement policy in the 21st century: an helicopter view
  • 3. Water in the Netherlands hasmany faces
  • 4. Long history of watermanagement in the Netherlandscirca 1580 circa 1700 2000
  • 5. The Dutch have always beenliving with water
  • 6. A new approach is needed……
  • 7. New policy principles as of 2000 National Agreement Water (NBW21)
  • 8. Mission:An expert on water, and arevolutionary approach to connections • Water management: Clean water in the rivers, lakes and the sea. The use of water to prevent falling watertables, as well as protection against flooding.
  • 9. Majorconcerns:Climate change Soil intrusion 3. The sea level rises, river 1. The sea level is rising discharges increase and the soil is subsiding 4. Changes in precipitation: 2. The risk of floods more rainfall in winter, increases longer periods of drought in summer
  • 10. Retaining- Storing- Draining
  • 11. Mutual interest: Shared problems, Major stakeholderscooperation on • National government solutions • Provinces • Waterboards • Municipalities • Citizens, private enterprises, non governmental organisations (NGO’s)
  • 12. Organisation presentation1. Background & Context2. Challenges: 1. Safety and communication 2. Adaptation 3. Urbanisation 4. Innovation3. Organisation Dutch Watermanagement System4. A multi-level watergovernance system in the making or in transition?5. Discussion and reflection: 1. Questions for international comparative training and reserarch
  • 13. 2. Contextual Backround
  • 14. The Netherlands and the Sea Surfac 33,000 sq. Below mean sea level 55%: of its territory e area Km.~ 60%: of its population Maryland + 65%: of its national gross product Delaware Inhabi 16 Million -tants ~ Florida Gross 430,000 M€ Nation ~ New York al (State) Produ > Australia ct
  • 15. The Netherlands and the Sea
  • 16. The Netherlands and the Sea 200 miles • Amsterdam
  • 17. Main characteristics watersystem (1) Withouthumanintervention,about 60%of theNetherlandswould beflooded bythe sea
  • 18. Main characteristics watersystem (3) The ‘Dutchchallenges’require avery fine-meshedwatersystem,highlymodified andregulated.
  • 19. Unievan Waterschappen Delta of 4 international river basins Ems Rhine Scheldt Meuse
  • 20. Metropolis?
  • 21. (Polycentric) Spatial Urban development
  • 22. Dijkring 14: Central Holland • Dijkrings have waterssystem related borders • Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Den Haag, Schiphol • 3 provinces, 5 waterschappen, 6 security -regions • Highways: A4, A16, A9, A10, A12 • Safety level: 1/10.000 year against flooding by the sea or rivers
  • 23. Dijkring 14: Centraal Holland
  • 24. KATRINA & FLOOD SAFETY IN THE NETHERLANDS “ What if it would happen here? “ Hans Balfoort Directorate General for Water Affairs
  • 25. scenario’s
  • 26. Monster, Katwijk enAlexanderpolder
  • 27. Side effects Next to flooding: • Failure electricity and gaz supply • Fallen trees and other objects • Failure infrastructure Security services • No drinking wter for long period • Failure ICT en telecom
  • 28. 3. Challenges
  • 29. Modelsimulaties wereldtemperatuurVerandering temperatuur (°C)
  • 30. Overstromingsgebied bij NAP -5.0 m Waddenzee Markermeer A6 A7 A9 Amsterdam A2 Utrecht Haarlem Noordwijk A4 M t.o.v. NAPNoordzee A12 + 5m Druk 0m op de toetsen Delft A13 Den Haag -5m
  • 31. Overstromingsgebied bij NAP +1.0 m Waddenzee Markermeer A6 A7 A9 Amsterdam A2 Utrecht Haarlem Noordwijk A4 M t.o.v. NAPNoordzee A12 + 5m Druk 0m op de toetsen Delft A13 Den Haag -5m
  • 32. Overstromingsgebied bij NAP -6.0 m Waddenzee Markermeer A6 A7 A9 Amsterdam A2 Utrecht Haarlem Noordwijk A4 M t.o.v. NAPNoordzee A12 + 5m Druk 0m op de toetsen Delft A13 Den Haag -5m
  • 33. Flood policy objectives forthe 21st century Sustainable flood risks Maintaining flood risks on an acceptable level against acceptable costs Management of the Management of the PROBABILITY of CONSEQUENCES of + flooding flooding
  • 34. Policy options for the 21st century -probability Room for the Rivers (2006) – Widening of the river bed Further differentiation in flood probability – More refined legislative safety standards Flood compartments – Reduction of flooded area
  • 35. Policy options for the 21st century -consequencesIntroduction of flood insurance− NFIP?Building codes− Adaptive building principlesEvacuation− Local or Germany?Disaster response− First national exercise 2008
  • 37. 1953 flood: 1836 victims
  • 38. Safer than ever, but …• Climate change requires adaptation (scenario’s KNMI)• Rhine: – Capacity increase – Dependence on Germany• Meuse: – Uncertainties about future capacity – Dependence on measures Belgium• Sea and Shore – Sealevel risingm extremer strms, higher waves• and… – deadcasualties worst case larger than anticipated (10.000- 100.000) – Economic value to be protected behind the dikes has increased considerably (factor 5 since 1956) including population increase
  • 39. Innovation
  • 40. Unievan Waterschappen
  • 41. Unievan Waterschappen
  • 42. The future? Examples of integrated spatial planning
  • 43. 4. Institutional Organisation – MLG in the making
  • 44. A new Water ActAn integrated law Unie van Waterschappen to regulate themanagement and use of water systems in the Netherlands.
  • 45. Why did we need this new Water Act?1.Modernization and harmonization of instruments for integrated water management Current legislation is disperse and out-of-date Insufficient instruments to carry out our new policies
  • 46. Why did we need thisnew Water Act? 2.Europe-proof: Elaborating the implementation of the European Framework Directive Water Water system approach
  • 47. Why did we need thisnew Water Act? 3.Dutch deregulation programmes: fewer rules and less administrative costs
  • 48. Objectives of the WaterAct • Quantity: prevention/mitigation of flood and droughts • Quality: protection and improvement of chemical/ecological quality • Functions of water systems (e.g. swimming water, fishing water)
  • 49. Water Act will unite variouslaws • Water management Act • Surface water pollution Act • Sea water pollution Act • Groundwater Act • Flood management Act • Land reclamation and embankment Act • And others
  • 50. Water als ordenend principe Occupatie Netwerk Ondergrond
  • 51. Towards an integrated approachFlood defense Dealing Integrating water and with water spatial planning Future
  • 52. Water management in theNetherlands (1)Water management in the Netherlands Ems National authority Rhine Scheldt MeuseV&W Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water ManagementVROM Ministry of Spatial planning, Housing and the EnvironmentLNV Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality
  • 53. Water management in theNetherlands (2)Water management in the Netherlands National authority Provincial authorities 12
  • 54. Watermanagement in theNetherlands (4)Water management in the Netherlands National authority Provincial authoritiesWaterboards Municipalities26 467
  • 55. Unievan Waterschappen Waterschappen 26
  • 56. chairmanExecutive Board residents business / industry landowners/farmers real estate owners General Assembly
  • 57. Unievan Waterschappen a dedicated financial institution Nederlandse waterschapsbank
  • 58. Multi-level governance for watermanagement
  • 59. Unievan Waterschappen Costs of water management 2005 Total: 4,85 billion € National government, provinces, waterschappen, municipalities Cost division
  • 60. Unievan Waterschappen Financing principles State Waterschap General Financing by task Waterquality Watersystem budget stakeholders task (flood protection +water quantity) Principle Principle The polluter Interest-pay-say pays
  • 61. Unievan Waterschappen Total water costs per household
  • 62. For reflectionAan de slag! Which Questions would you address or like to see addressed in an institutional research programme on the NL?
  • 63. Unievan WaterschappenThank you for your attention
  • 64. Multi-level Water Governance in the NLDelta of 4 European River Basins
  • 65. Pieken in deDelta / Hogeregionalisering
  • 66. 6. 1. Monitoring Probleemanalyse & & Toezicht Kennismanagement 5. 2. Beheer Strategie & &Uitvoering Beleid 4. 3. Bestuur Maatschappelijke & verantwoording Besluit- & vorming Stakeholders
  • 67. ‘Territory Oriented’ Organisation1. Adequate boundaries (functional and spatial scales)2. Solid and Independent Scientific Knowledgse management and a public problem analysis;3. A Governance structure based upon particpation of stakeholders and relevant communities;4. Broad opportunities for interest representation and low treshold mediation and conflict reslolution;5. An international and best available technology (bat) based strategy;6. A clear, transparant and directive national policy, which serves as a foundation and constraint for a regional ecological, social-economic and cultural-histroric territorial agenda;7. Een clear and transparant regional administrative structure, under unequivocal, externaly legitimated and preferabbly independent administrative leadership;8. A Stewardship Council where the important, and for the strategic problems relevant regional ‘care-takers’ and executive organsations are involved;9. Shared services for the efficient executive organstion as a whole10. Independent evaluation, inspection/supervision mith an institutionalised capacity for learning, innovation and adaptive governance.
  • 68. Policy Implementation Supervision ‘Control’Inspect Evaluate Intervene‘monitor’ ‘assesment’ ‘compliance’
  • 69. Maatschappelijke Oriëntatie Resultaten Communicatie?
  • 70. ‘Zestien miljoen mensen……
  • 71. Ironie
  • 72. 1953 flood: 1836 victims Angst
  • 73. Unievan Internationaal Waterschappen Spektakel?
  • 74. Techniek….Watermanagement
  • 75. …of BesluitvaardigheidNederland Leeft (echt) metwater