2 determinism vs_constructivism

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  • 1. Determinism vs ConstructivismKarel MulderJanuary 7, 2010 1
  • 2. Determinism vs Constructivism• Basic Question: What drives technology? Does the “progress” of technology drive history? Or does history shape technology? Or: is the change of technology something that nobody can control?January 7, 2010 2
  • 3. Determinism vs. ConstructivismDeterminism Every new generation has some creative geniuses. They invent some new technologies (by there more than average intelligence or by pure coincidence). The act of invention is independent of society. Successful inventions diffuse in society and, thereupon, transform society.January 7, 2010 3
  • 4. Determinism vs. Constructivismscience technology innovation is not accidental but depending on scientific progress. As scientific progress is the result of its own dynamics, and independent of societal change, technological change is independent of society. (E.g. Dijksterhuis, 1950 and Koyre, 1943).January 7, 2010 4
  • 5. Determinism vs. ConstructivismAutonomous TechnologyScientific knowledge accumulatesTechnology is applied scienceResources for technological innovation are growing foreverTechnology is ever improvingJanuary 7, 2010 5
  • 6. Autonomous TechnologyMoore’s Law the number of transistors that can be placed on an integrated circuit is increasing exponentially, and doubles approximately every two years http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm Gordon Moore, 1965, Cramming More components onto integrated circuits, Electronics vol. 38, 8, april 19, 1965. http://www.opamp-electronics.comJanuary 7, 2010 6
  • 7. Autonomous TechnologyMoore’s LawThe original Moore’slaw plot Electronics, April 1965January 7, 2010 7
  • 8. Autonomous TechnologyMoore’s Law http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson/scen103/intel-new.gifJanuary 7, 2010 8
  • 9. Autonomous TechnologyMoore, proof of Autonomous Technology?Moore is not only an empiricaldescriptionMoore was the co-founder of IntelIt took 4-5 years to develop newchipsCompanies used Moore’s law intheir research planning www.automationnotebook.comJanuary 7, 2010 9
  • 10. Technological innovationTechnological autonomy Technological determinismA positive sum game? Or a negative sum game?January 7, 2010 10
  • 11. Determinism vs ConstructivismFrom autonomy to determinismJacques EllulTraditional technology vs.Modern technology http://www.jacques- ellul.org/media/portrait.jpgJanuary 7, 2010 11
  • 12. From autonomy to determinismTraditional Technology according to Ellul:Limited in its application (technologies were often based on specific local resources and therefore hardly transferable);Dependent on limited resources and on much ‘skill’ (skills like making and repairing tools, but also being able to judge weather conditions, or the tides);Local in its character, i.e., technological solutions for specific problems were embedded in local culture and traditions.January 7, 2010 12
  • 13. From autonomy to determinismEllul characterizes modern technology by:Automatism, i.e. there is only one ‘best’ way to solve a problem, and this technology seems to be compelling, everywhere on the planet;Self increase, i.e. a new technology reinforces the growth of other technologies: this leads to exponential growth;Indivisibility: the technological way of life must be accepted completely, including its good and bad sides;Cohesion, i.e. technologies that are used in various different areas have much in common;Universalism, i.e. technology is geographically as well as qualitatively omnipresent.January 7, 2010 13
  • 14. From autonomy to determinisme.g Unabomber AttacksJanuary 7, 2010 14
  • 15. Unabomber AttacksE.g. The CarThe car increases our freedom byincreased freedom of movementBy having a car, we can do ourshopping in MallsSmall neighborhood shops disappearWe therefore are forced to have a carSo a technology like the car curbs our Kaczynski arrested,liberty http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/shar emed/targets/images/pho/t304/T304687A.jpgUNABOMBERJanuary 7, 2010 15
  • 16. Social ConstructivismSCOT-model: Social Construction of TechnologyNon-linear dynamicsRelativism,Flexibility of meaningRelevant Social groupsJanuary 7, 2010 16
  • 17. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicycle Boneshaker Macmillan’s bicycle Guilmet’s bicycle Penny Farthing Xtraordinary Geared Facile Star Club Safety Lawson’s BicycletteJanuary 7, 2010 17
  • 18. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicycle1818DraisienneTwo-wheeledrider-propelledmachineJanuary 7, 2010 18
  • 19. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicycle http://www.phys.uri.edu/~tony/bicycle/draisien.gifJanuary 7, 2010 19
  • 20. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicycle1861MichauxJanuary 7, 2010 20
  • 21. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicycle1890sOrdinary http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/co mmons/thumb/a/a7/Ordinary_bicycle01.jp g/180px-Ordinary_bicycle01.jpgJanuary 7, 2010 21
  • 22. Flexibility ofMeaning January 7, 2010 22
  • 23. Flexibility of MeaningThe dangerous machineJanuary 7, 2010 23
  • 24. New designsJanuary 7, 2010 24
  • 25. New Designs1874ArielJanuary 7, 2010 25
  • 26. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicyclefrom 1879Safety bicycles1885 Rover Safety Bicycle http://www.phys.uri.edu/~tony/bicycle/rover.gifJanuary 7, 2010 26
  • 27. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the BicyclePenny farthing, up to 1.5 mLine of development guided by aspeed wish sustained by young,sportive men for whom the dangerof falling was part of the fun1893 High wheeler http://www.bikes.msu.edu/history/web/hi- wheeler-1-P3019443.JPGJanuary 7, 2010 27
  • 28. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicycle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Bicycle.jpgSafety bikeReflectors for night ridingWomen, recreation cyclists, older peoplewere all interested in the developmentof a safe and comfortable bike (withbrakes, rear wheel drive, pneumatic tiresetc.)Ultimately, interpretative flexibilitydeclined: one (safety) bike, used by allactors, the old and the (included) newactorsJanuary 7, 2010 28
  • 29. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the Bicycle http://marcphoto.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/gele-fietser.jpgJanuary 7, 2010 29
  • 30. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the BicycleJanuary 7, 2010 30
  • 31. Social ConstructivismExample: Development of the BicycleLessons for analyzing technological change: identify Relevant Social Groups identify their problem perceptions evaluate ‘solutions’ through the eyes of social groupsThere is not one best technology for all. However, our options become limited by positive feedback and entrenchment.January 7, 2010 31