17: Review

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17: Review

  1. 1. Chapter 17: Reviewct5308 Breakwaters and Closure Dams Emergency closure at WestkapelleH.J. Verhagen 1944 (photo: National GeographicMarch 7, 2012 1Faculty of Civil Engineering and GeosciencesVermelding onderdeel organisatieSection Hydraulic Engineering
  2. 2. advantages and disadvantages rubble mound monolithic• simple construction • short construction time on location• withstand unequal settlement • can function as quay wall• large ratio between initial damage • economical use of material in deeper and collapse water• many guidelines available • sensitivity to poor foundation conditions• dependence on the availability of adequate quarry • uncertainty about wave loads in breaking waves• large quantity of material required in deep water • complete and sudden failure when overloaded• large space required • reflection against vertical wall• difficult to use as quay wall • limited support for the designer from guidelines and literature March 7, 2012 2
  3. 3. Quarry stone or concrete ??March 7, 2012 3
  4. 4. which design formula ??? N ρ r gH 3 ρr g H 3 W≥ W ≥ 3 ∆ ( µ cos α + sin α ) ∆ K D cot α 3 3 0.2 H sc 0.18  S  = 6.2 P   ξ −0.5 (plunging breakers) ∆ d n 50  N 0.2 H sc − 0.13  S  = 1.0 P   ξ P cot α (surging breakers) ∆ d n 50  NMarch 7, 2012 4
  5. 5. SLS and ULSMarch 7, 2012 5
  6. 6. Closure dams: special conditions• subdivision of the basin in order to reduce storage area• subdivision because of two entrances• a closure with two or more entrancesMarch 7, 2012 6
  7. 7. two ways to reduce the area of abasinMarch 7, 2012 7
  8. 8. a basin with two entrancesMarch 7, 2012 8
  9. 9. an estuary with two channelsMarch 7, 2012 9
  10. 10. The gap is not (yet) in equilibrium• stabilise the bottom of the gap as soon as possible• avoid erosion of gullies in the storage areaMarch 7, 2012 10
  11. 11. closure dike breach Ouderkerk aanden IJssel (1953)March 7, 2012 11
  12. 12. closure alignmentsMarch 7, 2012 12
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