----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----Remember where we left the world last week ... the uneasy alliance between the allied powers, principally between the two superpowers emerging at the end of the second world war ...
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 07:57) -----In fact ...----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----The poster you see is for a right wing catholic group that paints a somewhat religiously apocalyptic picture of life under communism ...
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----This reflected the red scare of the early 50s - one that is associated with the Republican senator Joseph McCarthy who sat on HUAC
The period of McCarthyism began in the late 1940s and ended in the mid to late 1950s. McCarthyism came to be synonymous with the term witch-hunt, the act of making serious but unsubstantiated charges against people in public life. McCarthyism is also used today as a more all-purpose term to describe the general practice of making false allegations, specifically of pro-Communist activity and most often based on irrelevant evidence.McCarthyism is associated with the Red Scare and often referred to as the Second Red Scare. The Red Scare is the applied term given to a time in which Americans feared Communist influence in the United States from 1917 to 1920. McCarthyism brought about the Second Red Scare in the United States in the late 1940s.On February 25, 1954 Senator Joseph McCarthy took on the United States army. He issued summonses to army officers, the brigadier general and accused the army of giving an honorable discharge to an alleged communist sympathizer. It was the beginning of the end for what was known as McCarthyism.Senator Joseph McCarthy had been exploiting the nations fear of communism for what many believed to be for his own gain. Americans not only feared the Soviet Union, but they worried that communists were infiltrating the government in an attempt to overthrow America. McCarthy was the man most responsible for reinforcing such fears.Victims of McCarthyismThere were many innocent victims of McCarthyism and hundreds were imprisoned. Most of the victims however, did have some connection to the Communist party at some point in their lives. Lots of victims were blacklisted including several actors, authors, civil rights activists and physicists.McCarthys witch-hunt began in 1950 when he announced he had a list of 205 known communists employed by the state department. His charges led to years of senate and house investigations and were responsible for many people losing their jobs. The reputations of the victims of McCarthyism were destroyed and their families were torn apart. Popular condemnation was brought down upon people who were accused by McCarthy.McCarthys Accusations and InvestigationMcCarthys own undoing began when he leveled his accusations against the United States Army. This began at the Army Signal Corps laboratory at the United States Fort Monmouth Army post in Eatontown, New Jersey. McCarthy insulted the Army and the American public. These accusations led to the decline of McCarthys popularity. The hearings of his Army accusations were for the first time televised nationally so that the American public was see the Senator in action.The United States Army was outraged by McCarthys accusations. McCarthy even accused President Eisenhower of treason. After almost a month of proceedings, the senate found that fellow Senator McCarthy acted in a manner they called contemptuous and reprehensible. On December 2, the senate voted 67 to 22 to censure McCarthy for inappropriate conduct of a senator.Senator McCarthy spoke the following to reporters in response to the condemnations: I feel no different tonight than I did last night. I am very happy to have this circus ended, so that we can get back to the work of digging out communism, corruption, treason in government. That job will start officially Monday morning, after 10 months of forced inaction.McCarthy was soon seen even by his supporters as a man with no sense of decency. His popularity rapidly declined. He died less than 3 years later of cirrhosis of the liver, ending the national nightmare known as the McCarthyism.http://www.encyclomedia.com/mccarthyism.html----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 07:57) -----Americans not only feared the Soviet Union, but they worried that communists were infiltrating the government in order to overthrow America ...
The investigation of Hollywood radicals by the House on Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in 1947 and 1951 was a continuation of pressures first exerted in the late 1930s and early 1940s by the Dies Committee and State Senator Jack Tenney's California Joint Fact-finding Committee on Un-American Activities. HUAC charged that Communists had established a significant base in the dominant medium of mass culture. Communists were said to be placing subversive messages into Hollywood films and discriminating against unsympathetic colleagues. A further concern was that Communists were in a position to place negative images of the United States in films that would have wide international distribution. Totally ignored in the hysteria generated by HUAC were the realities of the Hollywood studio system of the 1930s and 1940s----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----Communists were said to be placing subversive messages into Hollywood films and discriminating against unsympathetic colleagues ... further Communists were in a position (like 5th columnists...) to place negative images of the US in films - this ignored the realities of the power of the studio system ...
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----In fact, in terms of propaganda and promulgating a particular ideology there were a number of films that suggested that America was on the brink of Soviet conquest - part of the Cold War paranoia of the times ...
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----Here we see an image of the now iconic film actor Humphrey Bogart attending a HUAC Committee meeting in support of acting and screenwriting friends ...
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----Many of the black listed writers and actors either left America to work in Europe - e.g. Sam Wanamaker (Globe) or had colleagues take the credit for their work ...
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----In Britain meanwhile the early years of the 50s saw a slow recovery from the war - remember that image of children playing in the ruins last week ..?
Between May and September 1951 the nation celebrated the Festival of Britain. After the devastation of war and years of austerity the Festival aimed to raise the nation’s spirits whilst promoting the very best in British art, design and industry. The London based centrepieces of the Festival, the South Bank Exhibition and the Festival Pleasure Gardens in Battersea, were the most visible elements of a Festival which was celebrated in cities, towns and villages all over Britainhttp://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/archive/exhibits/festival/intro.htm
architects and designers responsible for the Festival of Britain, which took place in 1951, a time of drabness and austerity as the country struggled in the years immediately following the Second World War. The South Bank in London became home to a collection of futuristic buildings which displayed the best design the country had to offer. Most famous of all was the 300-foot Skylon, the vertical rocket which soared above the Festival site. People danced the night away below it and Skylon hats were a talking point at fashionable parties. But the sceptics - mindful of the country's balance-of-payments crisis - pointed out that the Skylon was, "Just like modern Britain - no visible means of support". ----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----Things to come ... a collection of futuristic buildings which displayed the best design Britain had to offer ... the Skylon 300-foot - now the name of the restaurant in the newly refurbished RFH ...
A pioneer of modern furniture design, Robin Day was responsible for the seats in the Royal Festival Hall. He describes the event as "A shot in the arm for design generally", but he also remembers standing in his section in the Homes and Gardens pavilion and hearing one visitor's comment, "Look at those chairs! Can you imagine anyone being able to live with them in their home?" http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/reunion/reunion5.shtml
Lucienne Day designed textiles, some of which were displayed alongside her husband's furniture. She describes her designs as "Quite way-out really" and remembers the thrill of being able to produce designs which factories would actually be able to make, now that their looms were no longer devoted to producing blackout material. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/reunion/reunion5.shtml----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----Lucienne Freud in an interview a few years ago talked about the thrill of being able to produce designs which factories would actually be able to make now that their looms were no longer devoted to producing blackout material ...
----- Meeting Notes (16/02/2011 08:38) -----You will remember the Red Scare poster 'Is this tomorrow' well this serves as a counterpoint reflecting the postwar consumer boom and in this detail from a collage by Richard Hamilton - the original exhibition poster and an early example of Pop Art, an implicit criticism with an emerging consumerism ...
Week 4 T+C What are you rebelling against kid? Or … Lenin and McCarthy
Robert Capa, Death of a Loyalist Soldier, 1936 Tony Vaccaro, White Death — Requiem for a dead soldier. Bihain, Belgium. January 12, 1945.
John Heartfield, Don’t be Frightened he's a Vegetarian, 1936 (l), The Seeds of Death, 1937 (r)
John Heartfield, Heil Hitler, 1934 (l) The Thousand Year Reich , 1934 (r)
YevgenyKhaldei, Raising the Soviet Flag over the Reichstag, 30 April 1945
Joe Rosenthal, Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, February 23, 1945
Group Activity In groups, which include representatives from the different courses, prepare a presentation addressing the homework task i.e. The influence of your subject area on the second world war and the impact of the war on your area of study. You will be presenting your ideas formally for the class.
Potsdam Conference July 1945 Germany divided into 4 zones under military supervision of US, Russia, Britain and France Berlin divided into 4 zones Poland lost some of its eastern land to Russia but gained some on Germany’s eastern land Poland’s government was democratically elected but Stalin ensured it remained under Soviet control
Nuremburg Trials 1945/6 Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace Planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace War crimes Crimes against humanity
American Modernism: Apolitical Art “have the picture occupy so much of one’s visual field that it loses its character as a discrete tactile object and thereby becomes that much more purely a picture, a strictly visual entity” - Clement Greenberg
Korean War 1950-53 After WW2 North Korea was occupied by Russia, South Korea by US. Elections were called for. South elected a government, North did not- Russia set up a government (People’s Republic of Korea0 US and Russia withdrew by 1949 1950 N. Korea invaded the South. UN (set up in 1945) demanded withdrawal. US and allies sent troops to support South. China and Russia aided the North. 1953 peace was negotiated, country was divided along 38th Parallel with a 2.5mile wide DMZ between the two countries.
French Indochina (Vietnam) France had controlled Vietnam since 1883. Vichy France had allowed Japan into the country. When they withdrew communist forces fought, and defeated, the French. Vietnam was divided into the communist north and democratic south.
Two main factors qualify the post-war European experience. First the European Left was strong, especially the Communist party, its prestige enhanced by the leading role it had played in the Resistance. There was no comparable pole of attraction in Cold War America. Second, whereas America was now rich, richer by far than in the Depression years of the 1930s, Europe was devastated.Harrison, C. Wood, P. eds. (2007) Art in Theory 1900 – 2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas Blackwell Publishing p. 559
Actors (l. to r.) Danny Kaye, June Havoc and Humphrey Bogart (standing) and Bogart’s wife actress Lauren Bacall (sitting) listens intently to House Un-American Activities Committee Hearings on the presence of communists in the film industry. October 1947. Martha Holmes for LIFE.http://iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2009/05/page/2/
Calyx, the first design that brought her real fame, was exhibited at the Festival of Britain in 1951. A large expanse of it hung in the Homes and Gardens pavilion, in the "contemporary" dining room designed by Robin. The pattern of free-floating cusps or mushroom caps, Lucienne's fresh interpretation of the geometry of nature, was screen-printed on linen. The original colouring – so redolent of the festival – was sharp yellow, orange, black and white on an olive ground. http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2010/feb/03/lucienne-day-obituary
The feelings of the moment are nicely captured in Humphrey Jennings’ contemporary film documentary of England in 1951, ‘Family Portrait’. The title itself points to something distinctive about the country- no documentary film-maker in France or Italy or Germany or Belgium would have thought to use it. The film is a celebration of Englishness, strongly coloured by shared recollections of suffering and glory in the recent war, and it is suffused with only partly self-conscious pride in the peculiarities of the place. There is much emphasis upon science and progress, design and work. And there is no reference whatsoever to England’s (sic) neighbours or allies. The country is presented in 1951 as it truly stood in 1941: alone Judt, T. (2005) Postwar: A History of Europe since 1945 London: Pimlico p.163
During the 1950s mass production and new technologies were celebrated by the Media. Novel materials were to influence all areas of life, from the daily maintenance of the living space to the built environment as well as the production of art.Architect and writer Theo Crosby’s initial idea for an exhibition involving architects, artists, designers and theorists resulted in This is Tomorrow which took place at the Whitechapel in 1956 in collaboration with members of the Independent Group. The theme was the ‘modern’ way of living and the exhibition was based on a model of collaborative art practice. The 38 participants formed 12 groups, which worked towards producing one artwork. The outcome transformed the Whitechapel Gallery into a vibrant interactive space of installations.http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/exhibitions/this-is-tomorrow