Modernity- the social conditions that are seen as the effects of the processes of modernisation (ie the range of technological, economic and political processes associated with the Industrial Revolution and its aftermath)- the modes of experience of those social conditions (ie the Zeitgeist, the spirit of the age; a general trend of thought or feeling characteristic of the period
It is instructive to consider some of the other significantideas emerging in the 19th century which influencedthinking significantly:• Karl Marx + Friedrich Engels (1848) The Communist Manifesto• Charles Darwin (1872) On the Origin of Species• Sigmund Freud (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams
some features of Modernity:• Industrialisation• Urbanisation and the growth of cities• The growth of capitalism• Communication - telegrams and telephones• Technology - cinema and photography
Modernism:the cultural movements that arose within the changes in Westernsociety in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Theterm covers art, architecture, music, literature and the appliedarts.The term ‗Modernism‘ tends not to be used as a blanket term tocover all the art of the modern period. Rather, it is a form of qualityor value normally associated with certain works only and servingto distinguish these from others.
Modernism Modernism was a broad movement, encompassing numerous sub-movements (-isms, eg Cubism, Fauvism, Impressionism...) Even though many of the groups were not compatible with one another, what they all tended to agree on was a rejection of the previous notion of the purpose of art, that of serving or reflecting nature. Instead, they developed experimental approaches to art/design/ architecture, looked towardsPiet Mondrian, Art itself and the human experience;Composition No VI,1914 art for the sake of art.
modernism - the rejection of naturalismPablo Picasso (1907) George Braques (1910) Henri Matisse (1905)Les Demoiselles d’Avignon Violin and Candlestick Green Stripe
ModernismKey Modernist expressions: experimental, radical,readymade, primitive, the unconscious, spiritualism,expressive truth, art & industry, internationalismKey Modernist artists: Pablo Picasso, Jean Arp, MarcChagall, Wassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, MaxErnst, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, EgonSchiele, Fernand Léger, Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp,Barbara Hepworth, Frida Kahlo, Joan Miró, YvesTanguy, Lucio Fontana, Mark Rothko, etc. Christian Schad, Shadograph, 1919
modernism - in search of modernity Camille Pisarro (1897) Pierre Bonnard (1906/7) Boulevard Montmartre at Night Place Clichy
Art Manifestos“A manifesto is a communication made tothe whole world, whose only pretension is tothe discovery of an instant cure for political,astronomical, artistic, parliamentary,agronomical and literary syphilis.” • What is an art manifesto? – Often associated with the avant-garde movements of Tristan Tzara Modernism – A declaration of set artistic goals, purposes and ideas Avant-garde: • What purpose does an art manifesto serve? Cutting-edge, – A symbol, differentiates the group from other groups forefront, – A record; an historical mark (art history) progressive, – Bringing groups of people together, esp. with experimental, Modernism’s international associations in mind radical, unconventional, breaking ground...
Art ManifestosA range of art manifestos can be found in relation to various 20th Centurymodernist art movements:Futurist Manifesto (1909)Vorticist Manifesto (1914)Dada Manifesto (1916)de Stijl (1918)Surrealist Manifesto (1924)
Research task:• Each group is to read [extracts from] and discuss a specific art manifesto.Futurist Manifesto (1909)Vorticist Manifesto (1914)Dada Manifesto (1916)de Stijl (1918)Surrealist Manifesto (1924)
Futurism (1909-16)MANIFESTO OF FUTURISM (extracts)4. We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by a new beauty: thebeauty of speed. A racing automobile with its bonnet adorned with great tubes likeserpents with explosive breath ... a roaring motor car which seems to run on machine-gun fire, is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace.5. We want to sing the man at the wheel, the ideal axis of which crosses the earth, itselfhurled along its orbit.8. We are on the extreme promontory of the centuries! What is the use of lookingbehind at the moment when we must open the mysterious shutters of the impossible?Time and Space died yesterday. We are already living in the absolute, since we havealready created eternal, omnipresent speed.9. We want to glorify war — the only cure for the world — militarism, patriotism, thedestructive gesture of the anarchists, the beautiful ideas which kill, and contempt forwoman.10. We want to demolish museums and libraries, fight morality, feminism and allopportunist and utilitarian cowardice.F.T. Marinetti (1909)The Futurist Manifesto
Futurism (1909-16)Umberto Boccioni (1915)Charge of the Lancers
Futurism (1909-16) ‗Futurists have abolished quietness and statism‘ Umberto BoccioniUmberto Boccioni (1913)Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
Futurism (1909-16)Antonia Sant‘Elia (1914)La Citta Nuova
Dada (1916-22) ―Repelled by the slaughterhouses of the world war, we turned to art. We searched for an elementary art that would, we thought, save mankind from the furious madness of these times ... we wanted an anonymous and collective art.‖ (Hans Arp)
Dada (1916-22)Cabaret Voltaire, Zurich Hugo Ball (1917) Karawane
Dada (1916-22)HOW TO MAKE A DADAIST POEM (T.Tzara)Take a newspaper.Take some scissors.Choose from this paper an article of the length you want to make your poem.Cut out the article.Next carefully cut out each of the words that makes up this article and put them allin a bag.Shake gently.Next take out each cutting one after the other.Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag.The poem will resemble you.And there you are - an infinitely origial author of charming sensibility, even thoughunapprecia-ted by the vulgar herd.
Dada (1916-22)Raoul Hausmannfmsbwtözäu1918
Dada (1916-22)Hans ArpCollage made accordingto the Laws of Chance1916
Dada (1916-22)Hannah Höch (c1919) Cut with the Cake Knife
Dada (1916-22)Marcel Duchamp (1917)Fountain
Dada (1916-22) ‗Art for us is an occasion for social criticism, and for a real understanding of the age we lived in.‘ Hugo Ball
Surrealist ManifestoDictionary: Surrealism, n. Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposesto express, either verbally, in writing, or by any other manner, the realfunctioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all controlexercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation.Encyclopedia: Surrealism. Philosophy. Surrealism is based on the belief inthe superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, inthe omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends toruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself forthem in solving all the principal problems of life.Andre Breton (1924) The Surrealist Manifesto
SurrealismAndre Masson (c1924)Automatic Drawing
SurrealismOscar Dominguez (1936)Decalcomania without Preconceived Object 1
SurrealismAndre Breton (c1924)Poeme
SurrealismRene Magritte (1937)Not to be reproduced
Modernism = Avant-Garde?Modernism represents a withdrawal from politics and thepublic realm (art for art‘s sake), which the avant-gardesought to reverse through the formation of a newpoliticized institution of art merged with life.
Fin de Siècle
The introduction of the Box Brownie“You press the button, we do the rest”
1902• Alfred Stieglitz organizes "Photo Secessionist" show in New York City, a movement concerned with recognising and embracing photography as a fine art. Acknowledging the possibilities of the contribution of the photographer (through soft focus, dark room manipulation etc) in the creation of the artwork.
Battleship Potemkin, The Stenberg Bros Film Posters, 1929
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles dAvignon, 1907
Lewis Hine hired byUS National ChildLabour Committee tophotograph childrenworking mills,1909 Hine, Lewis, Glass Factory, 1908
1909Marinetti’s Futurist Manifesto
Igor Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring 1913
1914, Outbreak of War
1917 Russian Revolution
Constructivism (1919-22)El Lissitzky (1919)Beat the Whites with the Red wedge
‗Lissitsky‘s vision for photography was both anti-pictorialist and multi- faceted.Above all, photography was to be at the service of the proletariat, part of themodernist revolution in which all art would act as a catalyst for social change.The artist, as Margit Rowell has written, would function firstly, ‗as a “worker”comparable to the proletarian worker, and eventually as a “constructor” or“engineer”. The notion of art as the expression of individual genius wasofficially proscribed, and replaced by an art that would be politically effective,socially useful and mass produced.‘Badger, G. The Genius of Photography: How photography haschanged our lives, Quadrille Publishing Limited, 2007, p.59