PG01 - ResearchACatlyst & InspirationsCreative problem solving with technology, by responding to immediatesituations and things of real life, what challenges lie in front of me – being inthe moment - and with the motivation of creating a better world.Moments of clarityA weekend at a festival – tracking my childTaking the bus – tapping into GPS of London BusesStolen bicycle – need for a simple low cost transmitterWhere to begin ?Historical and Broader issuesWhere are we at this point in history,Are we in the midst of a digital revolution, and if so, how does this relate topast technological revolutions ?Is the ‘digital revolution’, rhetorical, mythical or fact – Initially, it wouldappear that there is little doubt that we are in the midst of a huge culturalshift with regards to how we use technology and that is largely due to digitalprocesses.BContext – Research text to define the historical context“Today we are witnessing the early turbulent days of a revolution assignificant as any other in human history. A new medium of humancommunications is emerging, one that may prove to surpass all previousrevolutions – the printing press, the telephone, the television, the computer –in it’s impact on our economic and social life.” “This book argues that one cannot understand the place of computercommunication technology without taking into account of some of the centralmyths about the rise of global computer communications systems,particularly those identified with the internet, the World Wide Web, andcyberspace. It maintains that myths are important both for the way that theyreveal (including a genuine desire for community and democracy) and forwhat they conceal (including the growing concentration of communication
power in a handful of transntional media businesses). Focusing on mythsabout technology, it suggests that by understanding the myths that animatedthe spread of earlier technologies, such as electrification, broadcasting, andtelecommunications systems, we can deepen our understanding abutcyberspace.‘The Digital sublime’ - Vincent Mosco MIT press 2004 p. 18-19CSome broader contemporary issuesWhat is different about this age of ‘now’, that distinguishes it fromtechnological revolutions of the past, and what are commonly held beliefsand the underlying the myths associated - to start let’s look at some of thebroader issues.1 Globalisation and the ‘Cloud’.D2 Convergence The Black Box VS theory Divergence
ESignificant points of View through the research of othersHenry JenkinsFConvergence captures the imagination, but divergence captures themarket…. Why divergence and not convergence? Because convergencerequires compromise and divergence satisfies the evolving needs of differentmarket segments…. Irreconcilable differences will always doom suchconvergence concepts. Television is a “passive” medium; the Internet is an“active” medium. A couch potato will never put up with the complexities ofinteractive TV and an Internet junkie will never surf the Net with an awkwardbox designed for another purpose. Like automobiles, different marketsegments demand different products… Companies today are pouring billionsof dollars into such convergence concepts as smart phones, smart gaspumps, smart homes, smart watches, smart clothing, smart refrigerators,smart toilets and smart appliances. This is a tragic waste of time and money.Companies would be more innovative, more profitable and more successful ifthey would focus on the opposite idea: divergence.http://henryjenkins.org/2006/06/convergence_and_divergence_two.html
GPatrick Dixon who says that they are occurring simultaneously.British Sugar, who use so much energy producing their sugar that theydecided to generate their own power to drive their factory. Using a turbinemuch the same as a jet engine. They then funnel the exhaust, water andcarbon dioxide, through a 2.5 km pipe down the road to the largestgreenhouse in Europe which produces 35 000 000 tomatoes per year. Theresult was an exposion of growth, now producing 70 000 000 tomatoes peryear. So a sugar producer’s technological innovation takes a divergent paththat leads them into not only efficiently generatering power, but also theirown waste management system and increased universal food productivity.10m:45shttp://www.globalchange.com/clean-power-green-tech-new-world-innovation-to-protect-future-environment-futurist-keynote.htmhttp://www.globalchange.com/convergence.htmHJohn Martinhttp://www.jamesmartin.com/film/Observations / Fact finding research as it relates to the practical issue.What was the catalyst to thinking seriously about the future of mobiledevices ? BVE 2012 discussion with a Sony corporation researcher developing strategies for asset and product distribution through mobile devices in the furure. Their will be approximately 50 000 000 000 mobile devices by 2020, at least 5 for every person on the planet. Proliferation of mobile devices and associated digital media, social networking, blogging etc – contribute to real world and revolution action for example how in recent times these technologies supported and catalysed events like the Arab spring / London riots.
Questions So now everyone with a mobile phone is or will be a receiver and potentially a transmitter for Global positioning ? Perhaps there is nothing new to this idea, but what are the considerations for us once we have downloaded that app and opted into the GPS net by ‘allowing’ the Location Based Service permissions attached to the app ?Mini mind mapIJMoral and Ethical issues surrounding the networks that LOCATIONBASED SERVICES are dependent upon Location Based Services work hand in hand with GPS per se,however, of the positioning systems in existence only two are currently
available - one is American and one is Russian. For the moment we aresubscribers to the Us State government’s network system. a GPS is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. b GLONASS – Russias global navigation system. Fully operational worldwide. These are some of the options we can hope to have access to in the near future. C Galileo – a global system being developed by the European Union and other partner countries, planned to be fully operational by 2014. d BeiDou-2, the Chinese system currently under construction. e Space India recently announced that it is going to have its very own Global Positioning System (GPS) by 2014Monoplositation of the networks This brings me to the questions that surround monopolisation. Withregards to the networks, currently GPS is maintained by the United Statesgovernment and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. What about the future, will they be open or closed networks, will theterritories and coverage be broad and how available will the infrastructureand data be ?How is GPS used and can it be abused ?There are many arguments for the ethical use of GPS tracking such as findyour missing pets, young children, older and vulnerable people such asalzheimers sufferers and people with dementia. It is very commonly used fortracking criminals, for evidence corroboration in courts of law and fortracking criminals and for the corroboration of evidence in courts of law.American companies True Position, Xora and Time track are a few who offerthese services, particularly within industry for tracking employees and isjustified by users in that it is cosensual and under the employees contractualobligation to the company an furthermore that - a tracking fleets and vehicles improves time and energy saving’s through route optimisation b it improves worker efficiency
c it can be used to recover stolen vehicles d it helps with maintenance schedulesKSo there is a need for an ethical frameworkPresumably within the wider context technology isn’t good or evil, howevercan significantly empower forces of good and evil.Considerations1 accuracy - As it not always reliable can it be viewed as truly viable.2 accessability - technology gaps between the have’s and have not’s - third poor and marginalised will be excluded - cultures in which women are heavily restricted3 ownership - who owns the data - how can third parties that hold the aggregate data use this data.4 privacy Privacy isn’t threatened buy the collection of data but by the centralisation of the collected information which can be a combination of your location and personal information. - The potential for use / abuse within advertising and marketing industries is massive. As if it isn’t bad enough that they call me on a Sunday evening at home, now they could know where I am at all times of the day and night. - It could be a particularly dangerous threat to people who are at serious risk of human rights violations in politically unstable regions and totalitarian states. - information misuse by ‘black hat hackers’ and criminals who can rob your home while you are away. - ‘geoslavery’ where one entity exerts control over
another. - GPS location data can be correlated with wider data collections such as your credit card history from which your consumer habits and wealth status can be determined. More locally, this can be correlated with collected data from oyster cards and retail data collections such as Tesco’s club card, Nectar cards etc.Possible legal issues of the future will we have any choices ? Currently in the US citizens with passports which have RFID (radio frequency identification) chips inserted carry a risk of 25 year imprisonment for their removal.New threats stealth wind  and big data collection  Palantir leads to probalility algorithms that predict your next location  Bamford J. Wired May 2012 p139-145   Harris S. Wired Sept 2012 p110-117