Enlightenment ideals• Reason (human autonomy: Humans seek knowledge and use own reason rather than being told what to think by the church)• Enlightenment is universal (humans are equal by nature, differences less important than inherent sameness)• Progress (away from superstition and ‘immaturity’)• Secularism (the separation of church and states) Rembrandt, ,The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632• Idea of popular government (not just aristocrats should rule but also the Bourgeois- middle class)
“Invention of Time”In November 1840, the GreatWestern Railway ordered thatLondon time should be used in allits timetables, and at all its stations.It was not until the 1880s that timewas standardised in England. Asidefrom train timetables towns aroundthe country set their watches to atime they themselves agreed upon.1884 the Greenwich Meridian wasadopted internationally as theprime meridian (except by France)
The Crystal PalaceMay-October 1851, Hyde Park, London All the progress on show in expos was seen as belonging to all i.e. the people felt a sense of attachment; with power and progress as a national achievement.
The design of theexhibition hall renderedthe crowd not justvisible but the crowditself ‘the ultimatespectacle’
Victoria and Albert Museum • Originally the South Kensington Museum • Opened 1852, funded by The Great Exhibition • 1858 extended opening with the introduction of gas lightingV+A (at current site since 1857)
“The anxious wife will no longer have to visitthe different taprooms to drag her poorbesotted husband home. She will seek for himat the nearest museum, where she will haveto exercise all the persuasion of her affectionto tear him away from the rapt contemplationof a Raphael” Lloyd (1858) in Bennett (1995) The Birth of the Museum, p 32
Le Bon Marché • The birth of department stores offered a behavioural role model for women (at that time shopping being seen as being for women) • They could aspire to this Bourgeois lifestyle • The working class women employed in these stores could be moulded and become a model of the transformative power of these institutions.
“To be modern is to find ourselves in an environment that promises us adventure, power, joy, growth, transformation of ourselves and the world-and, at the same time, that threatens to destroy everything we have, everything we know, everything we are.” Berman, M. (1982), All That Is Solid Melts Into Air” , London: Verso p.15
The Haussmanisation of Paris 1852-1870 (Continued after Haussmann to c.1882)• ‘Creative destruction’• Slum clearance and the opening up of the city• Expand local business to help project costs• Commercial streets, zoning for cafés,• Macadam streets, faster traffic• Parks, public squares, uniform buildings• Ease of movement for military Baron Haussmann
Charles Marville, Rue Soufflot, The Pantheon, 1858- Rue Soufflot, The Pantheon, February 2008 78
The 19th Century poet,writer and critic CharlesBaudelaire had hisessay The Painter ofModern Life publishedin 1863, in the midst ofthese huge socialchanges. Etienne Carjat, Charles Baudelaire, 1861-62
Baudelaire’s modernité“Modernity is the transient, the fleeting, thecontingent; it is one half of art, the otherbeing the eternal and the immovable” The Painter of Modern Life (1863)
Shift to what became known as Modernism• The huge changes in society through the19th century began to influence the workbeing made by those in the arts.• The late 19C saw the emergence of adistinct movement which was influencedby these change.
Why the Modernism movement?– There is a direct reaction to the Romantic ideas that did not always portray truth.– Individuals began to revolt against anything coming from the Romantic Era. • In fact, the concept of avant-garde implies a very militant stand against Romanticism. • Most Modernists wanted to go as far as destroying everything that came as a result of Romanticism and have it replaced with Modernist methods and ideas. • Modernism is the reaction of artists and writers to the new society formed because of industrialization.
No doubt it is an excellent discipline to study the old masters, in order tolearn how to paint, but it can be no more than a superfluous exercise ifyour aim is to understand the beauty of the present day. The draperies ofRubens or Veronese will not teach you how to paint watered silkdantique, or satin à la reine, or any other fabric produced by our mills,supported by a swaying crinoline, or petticoats of starched muslin.What would you say, for example, of a marine painter (...) who,having to represent the sober and elegant beauty of a modern vessel,were to tire out his eyes in the study of the overloaded, twisted shapes,the monumental stern, of ships of bygone ages, and the complex sailsand rigging of the sixteenth century?[The painter of modern life], guided by nature, tyrannized over bycircumstance, has followed a quite different path. He began by lookingat life, and only later did he contrive to learn how to express life. Charles Baudelaire, The Painter of Modern Life, 1863
The Academic Styles:Neoclassicism and Romanticism William-Adolphe Bouguereau “The Bathers” (1884)
Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830
Édouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur lherbe, 1863 Édouard Manet, Olympia, 1863
William-Adolphe Bouguereau, The Bathers, 1884 Paul Cezanne, The Three Bathers, 1879-82
Paul Delaroche“From today painting is dead” 1839(Attributed)"The painter will discover in this processan easy means of collecting studieswhich he could otherwise only haveobtained over a long period oftime, laboriously and in a much lessperfect way, no matter how talented hemight be." Hippolyte Bayard, Self-Portrait in the Studio, post 1850
It is instructive to consider some of the othersignificant ideas emerging in the 19th-20thC.which influenced thinking significantly.• Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto, 1848• Charles Darwin, On the Origin of the Species, 1872• Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900
• 1880: Edison invents the electric light• 1895: Frances Lumière brothers build a portable movie camera, Paris audience sees movies projected