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  • 1. How to research
  • 2. Research• Sources?• Credibility, authority, accuracy• Websites-ac.uk/.edu.co.uk/.com.org.uk/.org.gov.uk/.gov
  • 3. Influences on the 20 th century
  • 4. Define/dates• Industrial revolution• Modernity• Modern• Your subject area?
  • 5. Enlightenment ideals• Reason (human autonomy: Humans seek knowledge and use own reason rather than being told what to think by the church)• Enlightenment is universal (humans are equal by nature, differences less important than inherent sameness)• Progress (away from superstition and „immaturity‟)• Secularism (the separation of church and states)• Idea of popular Rembrandt, ,The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 163 government (not just aristocrats should rule but also the Bourgeois- middle class)
  • 6. “Invention of Time”In November 1840, the GreatWestern Railway ordered thatLondon time should be used inall its timetables, and at all itsstations.It was not until the 1880s thattime was standardised inEngland. Aside from traintimetables towns around thecountry set their watches to atime they themselves agreedupon.1884 the Greenwich Meridianwas adopted internationally asthe prime meridian (except byFrance)
  • 7. Empire and Education
  • 8. The Great Exhibition (World Fair) 1851
  • 9. The Crystal PalaceMay-October 1851, Hyde Park, London All the progress on show in expos was seen as belonging to all i.e. the people felt a sense of attachment; with power and progress as a national achievement.
  • 10. The design of theexhibition hallrendered the crowdnot just visible but thecrowd itself „theultimate spectacle‟
  • 11. Victoria and Albert Museum • Originally the South Kensington Museum • Opened 1852, funded by The Great Exhibition • 1858 extended opening with the introduction of gas lighting V+A (at current site since 1857)
  • 12. “The anxious wife will no longer have tovisit the different taprooms to drag herpoor besotted husband home. She willseek for him at the nearest museum,where she will have to exercise all thepersuasion of her affection to tear himaway from the rapt contemplation of aRaphael” Lloyd (1858) in Bennett (1995) The Birth of the Museum, p 32
  • 13. Le Bon Marché • The birth of department stores offered a behavioural role model for women (at that time shopping being seen as being for women) • They could aspire to this Bourgeois lifestyle • The working class women employed in these stores could be moulded and become a model of the transformative power of these institutions.
  • 14. The City
  • 15. “To be modern is to find ourselves in an environment that promises us adventure, power, joy, growth, transformation of ourselves and the world-and, at the same time, that threatens to destroy everything we have, everything we know, everything we are.” Berman, M. (1982), All That Is Solid Melts Into Air” , London: Versop.15
  • 16. The Haussmanisation of Paris 1852-1870 (Continued after Haussmann to c.1882)• „Creative destruction‟• Slum clearance and the opening up of the city• Expand local business to help project costs• Commercial streets, zoning for cafés,• Macadam streets, faster traffic• Parks, public squares, uniform buildings• Ease of movement for Baron Haussmann military
  • 17. Paris 1771 Paris Post-Haussmann
  • 18. Charles Marville, Rue Soufflot, The Pantheon, Rue Soufflot, The Pantheon, February 2008 1858-78
  • 19. The 19th Centurypoet, writer and criticCharles Baudelairehad his essay ThePainter of Modern Lifepublished in 1863, inthe midst of thesehuge social changes. Etienne Carjat, Charles Baudelaire, 1861-62
  • 20. Baudelaire‟s modernité“Modernity is the transient, the fleeting, thecontingent; it is one half of art, the otherbeing the eternal and the immovable” The Painter of Modern Life (1863)
  • 21. Shift to what became known as Modernism• The huge changes in society through the19th century began to influence the workbeing made by those in the arts.• The late 19C saw the emergence of adistinct movement which was influencedby these change.
  • 22. Why the Modernism movement?– There is a direct reaction to the Romantic ideas that did not always portray truth.– Individuals began to revolt against anything coming from the Romantic Era. • In fact, the concept of avant-garde implies a very militant stand against Romanticism. • Most Modernists wanted to go as far as destroying everything that came as a result of Romanticism and have it replaced with Modernist methods and ideas. • Modernism is the reaction of artists and writers to the new society formed because of industrialization.
  • 23. No doubt it is an excellent discipline to study the old masters, in order tolearn how to paint, but it can be no more than a superfluous exercise ifyour aim is to understand the beauty of the present day. The draperies ofRubens or Veronese will not teach you how to paint watered silkdantique, or satin à la reine, or any other fabric produced by our mills,supported by a swaying crinoline, or petticoats of starched muslin.What would you say, for example, of a marine painter (...) who,having to represent the sober and elegant beauty of a modern vessel,were to tire out his eyes in the study of the overloaded, twisted shapes,the monumental stern, of ships of bygone ages, and the complex sailsand rigging of the sixteenth century?[The painter of modern life], guided by nature, tyrannized over bycircumstance, has followed a quite different path. He began by lookingat life, and only later did he contrive to learn how to express life. Charles Baudelaire, The Painter of Modern Life, 1863
  • 24. The Academic Styles:Neoclassicism and Romanticism William-Adolphe
  • 25. Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830
  • 26. Henry Wallis, The Death of Chatterton, 1856
  • 27. In search of ModernityCamille Pisarro, Boulevard Montmartre at Night, 1897
  • 28. Claude Monet, Train in the Snow, 1875
  • 29. Édouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur lherbe, 1863 Édouard Manet, Olympia, 1863
  • 30. William-Adolphe Bouguereau, The Bathers, 1884 Paul Cezanne, The Three Bathers, 1879-82
  • 31. Paul Delaroche“From today painting is dead” 1839(Attributed)"The painter will discover in thisprocess an easy means of collectingstudies which he could otherwiseonly have obtained over a longperiod of time, laboriously and in amuch less perfect way, no matterhow talented he might be." Hippolyte Bayard, Self-Portrait in the Studio, post 1850
  • 32. It is instructive to consider some of the othersignificant ideas emerging in the 19th-20thC.which influenced thinking significantly.• Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto, 1848• Charles Darwin, On the Origin of the Species, 1872• Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900
  • 33. • 1880: Edison invents the electric light• 1895: Frances Lumière brothers build a portable movie camera, Paris audience sees movies projected