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10 11 writing-a_res_text_ref_harvard_ 10 11 writing-a_res_text_ref_harvard_ Document Transcript

  • 15.10RAVENSBOURNEBA CONTEXTUAL STUDIES (LEVEL ONE)Writing a researched textPlus a brief explanation of referencing (Harvard referencing system)The Formative Assessment for the Theory and Context unit comprises:Submission of an individual researched text (800-1000 words) based on atopic or issue arising from the Term 1 lectures, with a bibliography evidencinga variety of sources.Your researched text must: • Have your name, course and the date on the front page of your text • Have a title (not just the word ‘Essay’ but a considered title or question) • Be a researched text (not just an opinion piece), using referencing to credit your sources and a Bibliography at the end.Presentation Requirements for all Contextual Studies written work: • It must be word-processed, A4 size (portrait), and have page numbers. • It must have standard margins (roughly one inch on all sides). • It must use an appropriate type-size (12 pt) and 1.5 or double line- spacing.All CS written texts, including Dissertations, are submitted by uploading onmoodle.Always be sure to check the Submission Requirements of your brief. 1
  • 15.10Research and ReferencingWhy do we research?How do we research? • Using a variety of techniques • Using a variety of sources • Thinking about issues such as authenticity, and appropriatenessHow can we then use our researched material or information? 1) By making use of quotations (where we use the exact words someone else has written or said). We signal this by using quotation marks or indents. 2) By paraphrasing ideas or information (where we have taken ideas or information from someone else, but expressed it or explained it in our own words) 3) By referring directly to information such as statistics, listings, charts etc.How do we credit our researched material or information? • By using quotation marks (for a quotation) • By using a method of referencing for all 3 types of researched material or information mentioned aboveWhat is Plagiarism?Plagiarism is the use of other people’s ideas or words without the use ofquotation marks and without the acknowledgement of sources via referencing.It is, to put it bluntly, stealing – and is consequently taken very seriously.It can take a variety of forms (some of which may even occur as innocentmistakes), but the consequences are harsh.What is referencing?It is a way of crediting the sources of the researched material or informationyou have used (whether quoted or paraphrased). 2
  • 15.10Simply stated, referencing tells us where the material you have used comesfrom. It allows us to trace the material right back to its original source.It does this by placing a short reference in the text – that is linked to a longreference in your bibliography (a list of research sources at the end of yourtext).How do we mark quotations? How do we do referencing?Brief quotations should be set in single inverted commas:eg. ‘It was a revealing example of traditional industrial patronage.’Quotations of more than three lines should be indented and typed singlespaced, without quotation marks, eg. At no time in the history of industrial art has this lack of contact between artist and industrialist been so unfortunate, for the contemporary designer is qualified for active partnership industry not only by his/her ability but their lucidity of purpose and because their mind is attuned to the rhythms and is responsible to the stimulation of the machine age.Usually the text continues after leaving a line of space underneath.References are placed after any relevant quotation, paraphrasing orinformation in your text.In each instance, we place a short reference in the text – that is linked to along reference in your bibliography (a list of research sources at the end ofyour text).Here are examples of referencing:If you have quoted or paraphrased from a book,The short reference in the text looks like this:(author’s surname, date of publication, page number/s) placed after the quote:eg. ‘…the great strength of the crafts rest in their common visual language offamiliar shapes, forms and functions. It does not matter whether peopleactually want the teapots, jugs or bowls for use.’ (Dormer, 1990 p.32)The long reference linked to and placed in the bibliography looks like this:eg. DORMER, Peter. The Meaning of Modern Design, Thames & Hudson,1990. 3
  • 15.10If you have quoted or paraphrased from an article in a journal or magazine,The short reference in the text looks like this:(author’s surname, title of mag, page number/s)eg. ‘Everyone knows that the US is easily the biggest per capita consumer ofelectricity on the planet. Less appreciated is that country’s dependence on air-conditioning.’ (Fergusson, Prospect, p38)The long reference linked to and placed in the bibliography looks like this:eg. FERGUSSON, James. ‘A Brief History of Air-conditioning’. Prospect,September 2006, p38.If you have quoted or paraphrased from a website,The short reference in the text looks like this:(name of website up to first slash, date you visited the site)eg. ‘…the great strength of the crafts rest in their common visual language offamiliar shapes, forms and functions.’ (www.teleport.com, 2004))The long reference linked to and placed in the bibliography looks like this:eg. www.teleport.com/cdeemer/essay.html, 30 July 2004.If you have quoted or paraphrased from a film,The short reference in the text looks like this:(title, year of registration, medium)eg. …and at the start of the film, Meryl Streep, in the role of the magazineeditor, tells her assistant exactly how cruel and miserable the fashion worldcan be. (The Devil Wears Prada, 2006, film)The long reference linked to and placed in the bibliography looks like this:eg. The Devil Wears Prada, dir. David Frankel, film, USA, 2006.In other words – title, director, medium, country or countries of origin (wherethe film’s producers were based), year of registration.Do not confuse references with footnotes!Footnotes are used to make additional comment, which is not easilyassimilated in the main flow of text. They are normally numbered sequentiallyin the text eg. ‘according to the writer Peter Dormer (1)…’ followed by thefootnote at the bottom (foot) of the page. 4
  • 15.10What about adding illustrations?In this context, illustrations can be photos, drawings, charts, graphs and soon.Adding illustrations within, or after, your text is fine – but you must numberyour illustrations sequentially and place a caption underneath (or above) theillustration as follows:eg. Illus. 1, title or description of the illustration, source.To refer to your illustration in your text, simply put (see Illus. 1). 5