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Genetic Disorders Toy Poodle

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  • 1. Genetic Disorders Toy Poodle
  • 2. IntroductionWhen choosing any breed of dog you must be aware ofpotential health concernsAll dogs mixes and pure bred can have health concernsThe more popular breeds and their mixes will have moregenetic problems listed and more likely to have puppieswith problems .Although more serious in dogs under 6 lbs all sizes ofToy Poodles can have any of these health concerns.Make sure your breeder offers a written health guaranteegood for one year.Have the puppy heath checked at your Veterinarian.
  • 3. Musculoskeletal DisordersPatellar luxation: Slipping kneecap.Should be noticeable puppy vet checkprior to saleLegg-Calvé-Perthes disease : This is adisease of the hip joint in young (4 to 12months), small-breed dogs.
  • 4. Eye DisordersRetinal dysplasia: The condition is present from birth. At 3 to 4 weeks ofage, the breeder may notice that severely affected pups are less active andfrequently bump into objects. A veterinarian will be best able to examine thepups eyes for this condition with an ophthalmoscope at 12 to 16 weeks ofage, when the retina is mature.Cataracts: Can be congenital, juvenile or as a result of old ageCorneal dystrophy: an inherited abnormality that affects one or morelayers of the cornea. Both eyes are usually affected, although notnecessarily symmetrically. Chronic or recurring shallow ulcers may result,depending on the corneal layers affectedEntropion : Entropion is the inward rolling of the eyelid, most commonlythe lower lid. This irritates the surface of the eye (the cornea) and mayultimately cause visual impairment
  • 5. Eye DisordersProgressive retinal atrophy: deterioration of the retinal cells causes blindness.Generalized PRA - early onset: The first sign is generally failing night vision, asearly as 6 weeks of age, and this progresses to complete loss of vision by about 1 - 2years of age. Collies may retain some vision until the age of 2 - 3 years. In miniatureschnauzers, poor night vision usually develops later (6 months to a year) and there isadvanced loss of vision by 3 to 4 years. Affected Alaskan malamutes are day-blind(hemeralopia) at 8 to 10 weeks of age; night vision is never affected.Generalized PRA (progressive rod-cone degeneration) - late onset: Generallynight blindness is noticed between 2 and 5 years of age (depending on the breed)progressing to total blindness within a year or so. Peripheral vision is lost first.Central PRA (CPRA) - retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED): Loss of visionoccurs much more slowly than in generalized PRA, without initial night blindness.Affected dogs may not lose vision completely. Because the changes are in the centreof the retina, affected dogs initially have trouble locating still objects in bright light.Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in dogs. It is the result of increasedfluid pressure within the eye (elevated intraocular pressure or IOP). If thepressure can not be reduced, there will be permanent damage to the retina andoptic nerve resulting in visual impairment. Complete blindness can occur within24 hours if the IOP is extremely elevated or can occur slowly over weeks ormonths if the elevation is mild. Glaucoma is usually very painful. It isconsidered a medical emergency Unfortunately it is not usually apparent untildogs reach 3 year of age .
  • 6. Eye DisordersEyelash abnormalities Normally the eyelashes (or cilia) grow fromfollicles in the eyelid. Abnormalities of the eyelash are a commonhereditary problem in dogs. The three types are:distichiasis, in which extra eyelashes grow from abnormal follicleslocated on the inside edge of the eyelid. They may be singular ormultiple.ectopic cilia, in which the extra eyelash grows through the eyelid tothe inside.One or more ectopic cilia may be present.trichiasis, in which eyelashes growing from normal sites turn inward.The eyelashes are often abnormally long.Microphthalmia; ocular dysgenesis Affected dogs have prominentthird eyelids and small eyes which appear recessed in the eye socket(enophthalmos). A defect early in development results in the smallerthan normal eye (microphthalmia).This is often associated with othereye abnormalities, including defects of the cornea, anterior chamber,lens and/or retina. Microphthalmia is also seen with coloboma - a cleftin a portion of the eye, particularly the iris.
  • 7. Eye DisordersOptic nerve hypoplasia and micropapilla Optic nerve hypoplasia isan uncommon defect in which the optic nerve fails to developnormally, leading to blindness. One or both eyes may be affected.Micropapilla refers to a smaller than normal optic disc, and is notassociated with loss of sight.
  • 8. Blood DisordersImmune-mediated thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia means areduction in platelets (thrombocytes). Platelets (one of the cell types inthe blood) play an important role in the clotting process; thus the mainresult of a decrease in platelets is increased bleeding - for example,nosebleeds.In immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT), the reduction happensbecause there is increased destruction of platelets by the bodys ownimmune system, at a rate faster than they are produced in the bonemarrow. IMT may be secondary to some other process (such as aninfection, tumor, or drug reaction) or it may be primary, meaning thatno other causative factor can be found. It is more common in certainbreeds, suggesting an inherited genetic susceptibility. IMT may occurby itself or with other conditions like systemic lupus erythematosusand immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.The main problem for dogs affected by IMT is increased bleeding.Your dog may have nosebleeds, bruising on the gums or skin, and/orblood in the stool or urine (seen as a darker than normal color). Yourdog may also appear weak or lethargic.Many dogs with IMT experience only one episode ofthrombocytopenia, and respond well to treatment. Some dogs willhave occasional relapses, which may be associated with stressorssuch as another illness, or travel. Unfortunately some dogs with thisdisorder die acutely because of severe internal bleeding.
  • 9. Nervous System DisordersHydrocephalus: an abnormal build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) incavities in the brain (the ventricles). This results in increased pressure onthe brain. Puppies with severe hydrocephalus often die at a very early agedue to pressure from the increased fluid in the brain. In other less severelyaffected pups, the signs gradually become apparent over the first fewmonths of life, and in some mild cases the condition is only diagnosed laterin life.The types of signs seen with this condition include lack of thriftiness (smallerthan littermates, slow to grow), a domed skull (which gradually becomesmore pronounced), abnormal movement behaviour (e.g., restlessness,aimless walking), problems with vision, and seizures. These pups are veryslow to learn - it may be extremely difficult to housetrain them for example,or they may lose their housetraining.Generally the signs gradually worsen, although by 2 years of age they maystabilize. To minimize brain damage, the condition must be recognized andappropriate treatment begun early. However, affected animals will likelyalways be slow and have a limited ability to learn.
  • 10. Nervous System DisordersIdiopathic epilepsy the term used for recurrent seizures where no underlying diseaseprocess can be identified as the cause.The effects of a seizure depend on the part of the brain involved. Typically thereis a change in behaviour (eg. confusion, fear, rage), consciousness (the animalmay or may not lose consciousness), motor activity (rigid or jerky musclespasms, or paddling), and autonomic activity (salivation, urination, anddefecation). Changes in sensory function may lead to pawing at the face, tailchasing, or biting at part of the body or the air.Seizures may be partial or generalized, and mild or severe (grand mal). A dogexperiencing a mild generalized seizure might be confused, show weaknessand some muscle tremors, and look to the owner for reassurance. A dog in agrand mal seizure will be unconscious, with rigid or jerking limbs, andinvoluntary salivation, urination, and defecation.Seizures vary in frequency as well, from very occasional to almost constant.Status epileptics is a series of seizures in rapid succession, or 1 continuousseizure. This is a medical emergency which requires immediate veterinaryattention.It is common for a dog to show a change in behaviour such as hiding orattention-seeking for hours or even days before a seizure (called the prod Romeor aura). Abnormal behaviour associated with fatigue, depression, hunger,thirst, or hyperactivity may last for days afterward (post-octal phase).
  • 11. Nervous System DisordersDeafness Pups lose their hearing a few to several weeks afterbirth. Signs of bilateral deafness may include aggressive playbecause the deaf pup does not hear cries of pain fromlittermates, and having to be jostled to waken. Unilateraldeafness is much harder to spot.If your dog is deaf in only 1 ear, you will likely not even beaware of it. In training sessions, you may notice that your dogresponds better to hand signals than verbal cues.One-sided deafness is generally not a problem. However it ismuch more difficult for bilaterally deaf dogs to lead a normallifeBreeding stock should be tested by the BAER test before beingused for breeding, and pups should be tested before beingsold. Hearing loss, if present, is complete - that is the dogeither has normal hearing, or is totally deaf in 1 or both ears.
  • 12. Reproductive and Urinary DisordersCryptorchidism: Cryptorchidism meansthat one or both of a dogs testicles havenot descended into the scrotum
  • 13. Skin Disorderscongenital hypotrichosis Dogs with this condition havehair loss at birth or by a few months of age, due to faultydevelopment or a complete absence of some or all of thehair follicles from which the hairs normally grow. In somedogs other structures such as the sweat glands or theteeth are affected as well The hairless (or alopecic)areas are commonly the head, ears and abdomen.Where hair loss is more general, there is usually onlyminimal hair remaining on the very top of the head, andat the end of the tail and legs. This is similar to thepattern of hair growth in dogs that are bred to behairless.This condition does not affect your dogs general health.Over time, the skin often becomes darkened andseborrheic (greasy, scaly and malodorous). Dogs withpale skin will be more susceptible to environmentaldamage, particularly frostbite or sunburn
  • 14. Skin Disorderssebaceous adenitis This is a perplexing condition in which thesebaceous glands in the skin become inflamed for unknownreasons, and are eventually destroyed. These glands normallyproduce sebum, a fatty secretion that helps prevent drying of theskin.This disorder requires long term management, which can befrustrating for both owners and veterinarians because the responseto treatment is highly variable. There may be periods ofspontaneous improvement or worsening of the condition,independent of treatment.Your veterinarian will likely try a combination of approaches, todetermine with you what will be most effective for your dog. Mostimportant is the regular use of anti-seborrheic shampoos to removescales and dead hair, together with fatty acid dietary supplements.This may be all that is required in mildly affected dogs. Additionaltreatments include spraying the dog with a mixture of propyleneglycol and water to help restore lubricants to the skin and the use oforal essential fatty acids
  • 15. Respiratory DisordersTracheal collapse: Tracheal collapse is anarrowing of the inner diameter of the trachea,that fluctuates with the stage of the respiratorycycle. The rings of the trachea (made ofcartilage) lose their ability to maintain theirshape, and collapse when the dog breathes,causing a harsh cough. Most often this disorderis seen in middle-aged toy and miniature breeds.Chronic respiratory infection, obesity, and heartdisease can all contribute to the development ofthe condition, but it appears that there is also acongenital deficiency (ie. a dog is born with it) inthe make-up of the trachea itself.
  • 16. Heart DisordersTetralogy of Fallot is a rare but potentially very serious combinationof defects in the heart that arise when the puppy is still growing as afetus in the dam (mother). As the "tetra-" component of the nameimplies, tetralogy of Fallot consists of 4 defects inside the heart..In pulmonic stenosis, there is partial obstruction of blood flow fromthe right side of the heart through the pulmonic valve. Because of theobstruction, the right side of the heart has to work harder to pumpblood to the lungs. Causing an increase in the mass of the heartmuscle, or right ventricular hypertrophy, .A ventricular septal defect is a defect or hole in the muscular wall ofthe heart (the septum) that separates the right and left ventricles. Thiscommunication between two parts of the heart that are supposed to beseparate is inefficient, causing an increase in workload of the heart.Dextroaorta, or overriding aorta, diverts unoxygenated blood awayfrom the lungs, where it should go to be oxygenated, and out to thebodys tissues. A dog with tetralogy of Fallot has tissues that exist in astate of constant oxygen deprivation, which explains the exerciseintolerance and poor stamina commonly seen with this heartcondition.The result of the defects that make up tetralogy of Fallot is that theheart is forced to work harder than normal during every heartbeat, andpoorly oxygenated blood is delivered to the tissues of the body.
  • 17. Heart DisordersPatent ductus arteriosus Where the ductus arteriosus does notclose within 24-48 hours after birth, the dog is left with a patentductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA causes unnecessary recirculation ofblood through the heart, greatly increasing the workload of the heartand potentially causing terminal heart failure in time if the PDA is notclosed via surgeryMitral valve dysplasia The term "mitral valve dysplasia" refersto this exact situation, where from the moment a pup is born, itsmitral valve does not seal properly, and therefore imposes anincreased workload on the heart A mild degree of mitral valvedysplasia usually means no symptoms and a normal life,whereas severe mitral valve dysplasia can produce life-threatening symptoms even in the first year of life.
  • 18. Endocrine DisordersDiabetes mellitus In dogs with the most severe form of inheriteddiabetes mellitus, signs are usually apparent by 6 months ofage. Pups drink and eat more than normal, and yet grow veryslowly. They urinate frequently, and their stools are soft.In other dogs, diabetes mellitus does not develop until middleage. The signs of uncomplicated diabetes are typical -increased eating, drinking, and urination, with weight loss - allof which are a result of increased levels of glucose in the bloodand urine. Over the long term, this can lead to the developmentof cataracts, increased susceptibiIity to bacterial infections(especially of the urinary tract), liver disease, and pancreatitis.Eventually, untreated diabetic dogs will develop ketoacidosis, avery serious condition. Signs of ketoacidosis includedepression, weakness, vomiting, and irregular breathingpatterns.
  • 19. Endocrine DisordersHyperadrenocorticism .Hyperadrenocorticism, also known as Cushingssyndrome, is a common endocrine disorder indogs. The clinical signs are caused by anexcess of cortisol (the bodys form of cortisone).This occurs because of increased secretion ofcortisol by the adrenal glands in response to anabnormality in the pituitary gland in the brain, orbecause of a tumor in the adrenal glandsthemselves. Cushings syndrome is morecommon in certain breeds, usually in dogs thatare 6 years of age or older.
  • 20. Endocrine DisordersGrowth hormone-responsive dermatosis; adrenal sexhormone responsive dermatosis This condition is morecommon in male dogs between 1 and 5 years of age,with hair loss usually starting at puberty. Adrenalsex-hormone dermatosis is seen in males andfemales, either neutered or intact.Hair loss (called alopecia) is symmetrical over thetrunk of the dog and the skin is markedly darker incolor due to increased pigmentation. Withouttreatment, hairlessness and hyperpigmentation willeventually spread over your dogs body except forhead and feet. The condition does not affect thehealth of your dog, only his/her appearance.
  • 21. In ConclusionToy Poodles have 25 health concerns Disorders relatively common inthis breed are : patellar luxation .Note above disorder(s) is very common in this breed. Do not takelightly the other disorders. Some are very serious .Information for this presentation as a public service provided by:www.delayrekennel.com with information provided by :A joint initiative of the Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre at theAtlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, andthe Canadian Veterinary Medical Association..Permission is granted to reprint pages from the database, providedthat credit is given as follows: Crook A et al. 2011. Canine InheritedDisorders DatabaseWickipedia photos
  • 22. About the PresenterMember of the Canine Ambassador Program with Orange EmpireDog Club. Educating people in the joy canines bring into our livesthrough their relationship, interaction, and unconditional love.Pet Professional specializing in the training of puppies in Sun Valleysince 1974 .Breeder of Silky Terriers and Wire Fox TerriersMy boarding, training and breeding kennel was awarded SmallBusiness of the Year 2000Better Business Bureau A+ ratingI have owned and/or bred 21 Conformation Champions including 6International ChampionsMember and former Vice President of the City of Angels SilkyTerrier ClubPast President of Sun Valley Chamber of CommerceHave also served on the boards of Associated Terrier Breeders,Animal Safe Haven Foundation, United Chambers of Commerce