Knowledge basesession1 a_welker

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Knowledge basesession1 a_welker

  1. 1. A multi-level approach to monitoring stormwater control measures (SCMs) Andrea L. Welker, PhD, PE Professor
  2. 2. Chocolate in the peanut butter Peanut butter in the chocolate Education/outreach in the monitoring Monitoring in the education/outreach
  3. 3. Levels Types • • • • Very low Low Medium High • Hydrological • Water quality • Ecological
  4. 4. MONITORING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT
  5. 5. Some examples of hydrological equipment Precipitation Infiltration rates Standard, tipping bucket rain gauge Staff gauges, ultrasonic level detectors, bubblers, pressure transducers Runoff inflow and outflow Visual, pressure transducer in conjunction with a weir Volumetric water content Moisture meters or reflectometers
  6. 6. Some examples of how to get water quality samples Runoff Subsurface First flush samplers, autosamplers, and grab samples Lysimeters
  7. 7. Some examples of ecological methods Plant diversity and coverage Nutrient uptake Insect and animal utilization Inspection Analysis of plants Biological assessment
  8. 8. Frequency of inspection/monitoring Intermittent Yearly Monitoring is performed on an ad-hoc basis by citizens Seasonal Monitoring is performed in response to rain events four times a year, once in each season. The rain event should produce at least 0.6 cm of rain in an eight hour period to provide measurable quantities. This is applicable to runoff inflow and outflow and infiltration monitoring at infiltration and bioinfiltration SCMs and precipitation monitoring at infiltration, bioinfiltration, and evaporation SCMs. Event Monitoring is performed in response to as many rain events as practical, but at least 8 per year. This is applicable to water quality monitoring at all four types of SCMs. The rain event should produce at least 0.6 cm of rain in an eight hour period to provide measurable quantities. Continuous Monitoring is performed continuously for all rain events that produce at least 0.6 cm of rain in an eight hour period. This is applicable to hydrologic and water quality instrumentation that is self data-logging. The data can then be Monitoring is performed yearly, ideally at the same time each year. This is applicable to ecological monitoring.
  9. 9. Infiltration BMPs Very low Low Inflow and outflow Intermittent – visual inspection Seasonal – visual inspection Continuous Seasonal – staff gauge, infiltration rate of pavements (ASTM 1701) Infiltration rate High Seasonal – standard rain gauge Hydrologic Precipitation Medium Continuous, Seasonal infiltration rate of pavements (ASTM 1701) Continuous Seasonal – visual inspection Volumetric water content Water Quality Surface water samples Subsurface water Continuous (optional) Event or Continuous www.villanova.edu/vusp Event 9
  10. 10. Visual inspection checklist for infiltration SCMs Infiltration rate Ponded water present for more than 48 hours after rainfall event Inflow and outflow Sediment accumulation in basin area Clogged inlet structures Clogged outlet structures
  11. 11. Bio-infiltration BMPs Very low Hydrologic Precipitation Infiltration rate Inflow and outflow Low Medium Seasonal – standard rain gauge Intermittent – Seasonal – Seasonal – staff visual inspection visual inspection gauge Continuous Intermittent – Seasonal – Seasonal – visual visual inspection visual inspection inspection Continuous Volumetric water content Continuous Continuous (optional) Water Quality Surface water samples Subsurface water samples Ecological Plant diversity and coverage High Event or Continuous Event Seasonal – Seasonal – visual visual inspection inspection Yearly – plant Yearly – plant www.villanova.edu/vusp inventory inventory Seasonal – visual inspection 11
  12. 12. Visual inspection checklist for bioinfiltration and naturalized SCMs Infiltration rate Ponded water present for more than 48 hours after rainfall event Inflow and outflow Sediment accumulation in basin area Clogged inlet structures Clogged outlet structures Excessive erosion Plant diversity and coverage Presence of invasives Percent vegetative cover Presence of wetland plants Cattails Arrowheads Marsh smartweeds Color, quality, and size of leaves, stems, and flowers
  13. 13. Evapotranspiration BMPs Low Medium Seasonal – standard rain gauge Hydrologic Precipitation Outflow Seasonal – visual inspection High Continuous Seasonal – visual inspection Continuous Volumetric water content Continuous (optional) Water Quality Surface water samples Ecological Plant diversity and coverage Nutrient uptake Event or Continuous Seasonal – visual inspection Seasonal – visual inspection Yearly – plant inventory www.villanova.edu/vusp Seasonal – visual inspection 13 Yearly – plant samples
  14. 14. Visual inspection checklist for evapotranspiration SCMs Inflow and outflow Clogged outlet structure Plant diversity and coverage Presence of invasives Percent vegetative cover Color, quality, and size of leaves, stems, and flowers
  15. 15. Ponds and Wetlands (Naturalized SCMs) Low Medium Seasonal – standard rain gauge Hydrologic Precipitation Inflow and outflow Seasonal – visual inspection High Continuous Seasonal – visual inspection Continuous Water Quality Surface water samples Ecological Plant diversity and coverage Event or Continuous Seasonal – visual inspection Seasonal – visual inspection Yearly – plant inventory Yearly – plant samples Nutrient uptake Insect and animal utilization Soil conditions Seasonal – visual inspection Yearly – plant inventory Yearly – inspection www.villanova.edu/vusp 15 Yearly – soil samples
  16. 16. Visual inspection checklist for bioinfiltration and naturalized SCMs Infiltration rate Ponded water present for more than 48 hours after rainfall event Inflow and outflow Sediment accumulation in basin area Clogged inlet structures Clogged outlet structures Excessive erosion Plant diversity and coverage Presence of invasives Percent vegetative cover Presence of wetland plants Cattails Arrowheads Marsh smartweeds Color, quality, and size of leaves, stems, and flowers
  17. 17. QR codes on signage Comparisons to higher levels Education – place in watershed Checklists Citizens can add locations Reliability? Mapping Combine data for all levels Compatibility with existing apps Water reporter Creekwatch EPA USGS
  18. 18. Conclusions • Need to start small, but the sky is the limit • Maybe able to better link individual SCMs with watershed improvements • This work was supported by the William Penn Foundation and the TVSSI is grateful for their support

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