(PRIMER CORTE)<br />SPELLING RULES<br /> This is a partial list of the many, many spelling rules. Please keep in mind that there are exceptions to every rule. There are also many words that are non-phonetic and do not follow any rules. These words must be memorized. <br /> <br />I. DEFINITONS<br />1. Consonants: <br /> A. Single consonant: All of the alphabet except a, e, i, o, u. <br /> B. Consonant diagraphs: two consonants which together make one consonant sound <br /> 1. Basic diagraphs: ch, sh, th, wh, ng, nk <br /> 2. Other diagraphs: ck, ph, gh, wr, kn, gn, mn, mb <br /> C. Blends: two or three consonants said together, each keeping its own sound: br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr, scr, bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sc, sk, sm, sn, sp,st, sw, tw <br />2. Vowels: <br /> A. Single vowels: a, e, i, o, u, sometimes y <br /> B. Vowel diagraphs: a single vowel is always long, the second silent: ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, ie, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow, ue, ui <br />3. Syllable: a word or part of a word that contains one vowel sound <br /> <br />4. Suffix: an ending added onto a root word: er, ed, ing, est <br />II. ALPHABET PRONUNTIATION <br /> (have the students to practice with all the letters)<br />(SEGUNDO CORTE)<br />What Phonics Rules Should I Know?<br />Because the English language is so complex, there are many phonics rules. Knowing the phonics rules that apply most often can be a major aid to identifying words and improving comprehension in your reading. But keep in mind there are some words that don't follow the rules. You will just have to watch out for these exceptions.<br />Here are the most useful phonics rules you should know:<br />Every syllable in every word must contain a vowel. The vowels are: a, e, i, o, u, and y (although y is a consonant when at the beginning of a word). <br />When "
is followed by "
e, i, or y,"
it usually has the soft sound of "
Example: city. <br />When "
is followed by "
e, i, or y,"
it usually has the soft sound of "
Example: gem. <br />A consonant digraph is two or more consonants that are grouped together and represent a single sound. Here are consonant digraphs you should know: wh (what), sh (shout), wr (write), kn (know), th (that), ch (watch), ph (laugh), tch (watch), gh (laugh), ng (ring). <br />When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. Examples: tap, bed, wish, lock, bug. <br />When a syllable ends in a silent "
the vowel that comes before the silent "
is long. Examples: take, gene, bite, hope, fuse. <br />When a syllable has two vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second vowel is silent. Example: stain. <br />When a syllable ends in a vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. Examples: ba/ker, be/come, bi/sect, go/ing, fu/ture, my/self. <br />When a vowel is followed by "
in the same syllable, the vowel is neither long nor short. Examples: charm, term, shirt, corn, surf. <br /> (TERCER CORTE)<br />Phonetic Rules for Spelling<br />taken in part from Professor Phonics Gives Sound Advice by Monica Foltzer, M. Ed. St. Ursula Academy 1965, 1974, 1976 <br /> <br />1. Vowel Rule 1: When there is only one vowel in a word or syllable and the vowel comes between two consonants, the vowel is usually short. <br /> ex. back, fed, gun, cut, fig <br /> <br />2. Vowel Rule 2: When there is only one vowel in a word or syllable and the vowel comes at the beginning of the word, the vowel is usually short. <br /> ex: egg, off, it, add, us <br /> <br />3. Vowel Rule 3: When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent. Eg: "
rain, meat, coat, res/cue, day,"
. NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule <br /> ex: maid, hear, cute, coat, tied <br /> <br />4. Vowel Rule 4: When there is only one vowel in a word or syllable and the vowel comes at the end, the vowel is usually long. <br /> ex: why, no, he <br /> <br />5. Vowel Rule 5: When a is followed by u, w, r, ll, and lt in the same syllable, it often has the third sound of a, the Italian a. <br /> ex: haul, pause, scar, fall, pawn, fault <br /> <br />6. Vowel Rule 6: When Y comes at the end of a two or more syllable word, Y has the sound of long e if the Y syllable is unaccented. <br /> ex: funny, penny, soapy, flaky, tidy <br /> <br />7. Vowel Rule 7: When Y comes at the end of a two or more syllable word, Y has the sound of long i if the Y syllable is accented. <br /> ex: defy, comply, identify, supply, multiply <br /> <br />8. Vowel Rule 8: When words end with the suffix -ing, -ed, or -er, the first vowel is usually short if it comes between two consonants. <br /> ex: skinned, helper, canned, robber, shunned <br /> <br />9. Vowel Rule 9: When words end with the suffix -ing, -ed, or -er, the first vowel is usually long if it comes before a single consonant. <br /> ex: tamer, noted, user, zoning, cubed, <br /> <br />(CUARTO CORTE)<br />The Long Vowel Rule (1) <br />Long Vowel Rule (1): When a word has two vowel, usually the first vowel says its name and the second vowel is silent. 1. Long vowel a wordsmailgainbakeapepaint graynailmaincaketapedayplaypailpainlakeatehayprayrailrainmakehatelaystaysailtrainrakelatemaystraytailmanetakedatepaytraycamevanepalegatesayfadegamewavesalebaitwaymadenamesavewhalewaitclaygrade2. Long vowel e words seasealfearbeefwheatsheepteabeamhearmeekseemsleepreachteamnearseekseendeerteachbeanbeefeelteenfeetbeakmeantreehealgreenmeetweakheapfreepeeldeepbeethealleapfeedhearpeepgreetmealearneedmeatweepkeyrealdearweedseatcreepthree3. Long vowel i words hidebikedimevinepiediveridelikelimewipetiefivesidehiketimepipefirehivetidefilechimeripehirecrywidemiledinerisetiredrybridgepilefinewisewireflyglidetilelinesizebitefrypridesmilemineprizekitetryslidewhilepinediewhitesky4. Long vowel o words roadcoatholeropestovegrowloadgoatpolenosebowknowtoadhoestoleroselowshowoaktoehomeclosemowslowsoakrodebonechoserowsnowfoamjokeconehosetowthrowroampoketonenoteblowboastsoapspokestonevotecrowroastboatsmokehopedoveflowtoast5. Long vowel u words suiteJunetruenewchewflewfruittuneusepewdrewslewjuiceprunefusecrewgrewstewcutebluedewknewscrewmewflutecluefewmulethrewcubedunegluehewruleblewtubeThe Long Vowel Rule (2) Long Vowel Rule (2): If a word has one vowel and it comes at the end of the word, that word usually has a long vowel sound. 6. Long vowel words that follow Rule 2 hewewhyloyo-yoExceptions:mebygonobedoshemysosohitoThe Long Vowel Rule (3) Long Vowel Rule (3): The vowel i and o have the long vowel sound when followed by two or more consonants usually has a long vowel sound. 7. Long vowel words that follow Rule 2 childmindlightoldcoltmostbindblindnightcoldcoltpostfindgrindrightfoldjoltrollhindhighbrightholdvolttollkindfightflighttoldbothstroll<br />Vowel Rule No.4<br />When a word end in ck, it usually has the short vowel sound. <br />Short vowel words that end in ck <br />blacknecksockduckquacksickjackcheckblocktrucksnackbrickpackspeckclockclucktrackchicksackdockflockpluckkickquicktacklockknockstucklickstickblackrockstucktruckpicktrick<br />Vowel Rule No.5<br />When there is only one vowel in a word or syllable and the vowel comes between two consonants, the vowel is usually short. <br />Examples: back, fed, gun, cut, fig, put, <br />