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E Cognition User Summit2009 S Lang Zgis Object Validity
 

E Cognition User Summit2009 S Lang Zgis Object Validity

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Object validity for high-standard information products. Between theoretical foundations and operational use

Object validity for high-standard information products. Between theoretical foundations and operational use

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    E Cognition User Summit2009 S Lang Zgis Object Validity E Cognition User Summit2009 S Lang Zgis Object Validity Presentation Transcript

    • Object validity for high-standard information products Between theoretical foundations and operational use Stefan LANG1,2 1Centrefor Geoinformatics, University of Salzburg 2Department of Geoinformation Processing for Landscape and Environmental Planning Technical University Berlin eCognition User Summit 3 Nov 2009, Deutsches Museum, Munich
    • Centre for Geoinformatics (Z_GIS)  Experts for the spatial view  Analyse, understand and visualise spatial phenomena, their causes and mutual relationships as well as their temporal dynamics  Impart knowledge by teaching and training activities, foster capacity building  Establish tight links between GI science, industry and administration providing platforms for communication and exchange Knowledge Cycle 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 2
    • Academic Centre of Excellence (ACE) Z_GIS  ACE Z_GIS  1stACE for object-based image analysis (OBIA).  Since the year 2000, Z_GIS is widely recognized as a promoter of the OBIA approach with a broad range of activities in research, development and training.  organised and hosted the first International Conference on Object-based Image Analysis in 2006 (OBIA 2006),  supported last year's GEOBIA 2008 hosted at University of Calgary and upcoming GEOBIAs  edited the first comprehensive book on Object-based Image Analysis, published by Springer in 2008  Specifically, the ACE Z_GIS focuses on  Fundamental and applied research in methods and technologies aiming for a useful exploitation of remote sensing data in combination with geoinformation  Applied research in environmental and security-related applications  Scientific guidance to the dissemination of innovative approaches through education, awareness raising and new learning technologies  Integration of Definiens software in higher education programmes in order to broaden the base of students and future application specialists  Further development in specifies fields such as forestry, spatial ecology, security research, monitoring systems in general, etc.  Supporting improvements in the interface and conceptualization of the software 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 3
    • Challenges  OBIA opens the door  for entering new geographical realities within multiple scale domains and complex class descriptions  Enabling elaborated multi-scale object representations and class modelling for addressing  composite bona fide objects or  even concept-related fiat objects  By this, OBIA poses challenges  for evaluating object validity … in both scientific and operational context 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Object validity  The multi-scale solution …  (1) scaled representations must correspond to an underlying theoretical or ontological framework;  (2) user requirements of suitability and reliability must be met;  (3) qualification for existing workflows and geospatial infrastructures must be assured. 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Validation and use Usability (accuracy, Object validity stability, transferability, Class modelling / level of cognition network automation) Spatial analysis Epistemological significance Object fate Decomposability Pattern recognition Hierarchy theory Machine-based image analysis (multi-scale) (automated) Production system, Segmentation classification rule bases Image object Scaled representation (generalization) Image Pixel aggregate understanding Image region ‘Gestalt’ problems Visual perception / Classification human expert / schemes, experiences, expert user instance knowledge, existing / external geometryS 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 6
    • 3rd match Image understanding and OBIA Semantic system  conceptual reality Spatial distribution of Scene description Transparency Transferability categorized as conceptual reality Objectivity objects Utilization and transformation 2nd match Spectral, of knowledge Object hypotheses Class Modelling structural, semantic categorizing image objects characteristics and relationships Object and class Class system modelling 1st match Segmentation problem Domain of Knowing what we are looking for … interest target objects, scales and classes scale (dependent on the domain of interest) Target objects multi-scale representation Complex scene classes content 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 7
    • Regionalised hierarchies From Tiede et al, 2004 From Lang, 2002 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 8
    • Regionalised hierarchies Different patterns of increasing object size with incremental multi- res. segmentation From Lang, 2002 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 9
    • Regionalised hierarchies ESP tool taking into account local variance among objects and rate of change between levels From Dragut et al, in press 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 10
    • OFA and OBAA  Spatial relationships among corresponding geographic2008 Fig: Albrecht objects  From different (scaled) representations (e.g. manual delineation vs. segmentation) or different time slices Scale-specific Scale-adaptive representation representation Comparison visual interpretation vs. automated, machine-based delineation of habitats (left: FCIR air-photo, 25 cm GSD, courtesy of FH Weihenstephan; right: QuickBird imagery pansharpened 0.6m GSD) 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • OFA and OBAA  Object fate analysis OFA  Object-based accuracy assessment (OBAA) T0 two different time slices T0 and T1 with the same T1 representation, e.g. R0 Corresponding Layer R0 two different OFA representations R0 and R1 R1 at the same time slice, Reference e.g. T0 layer T0 R1 Reality: combination, i.e. Lang, 2008; Schöpfer et al. 2008; Albrecht 2008 different representations T 1 R1 from different time slices 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • OFA and OBAA Increasing level of interaction Fig: Albrecht in Schöpfer et al 2008 Object interior Object interior Object interior, and boundary boundary and exterior Good II Good I Expanding C2 similar to “equal“ complementing categories C1 similar to “disjoint“ Invading Not interfering I n exp R e _ ge n good n exp 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Towards high-level information products Geospatial Information products for explaining, visualizing and monitoring complex spatial Disaggregated population data phenomena within contamination zones of fictitious plume (Lang / Tiede) OBIA allows combining of • data integration automated image analysis and information extraction • regionalization and multi-scale representation • spatial analysis, change detection and modeling 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 14
    • Information on land-use transformation for regional development policy Satellite data -SPOT 5 (5m-color) mosaic  Demand profile and policy scope Auxiliary in situ data - DEM  Verband Region Stuttgart - ALK digital cadastral data, - Biotope mapping (hint layer)  Biotope complexes as basic units for - ATKIS digital topographic data regional planning purposes  BIMS (Biotope information and management system) VII Arable land, poor in 4 ha accompanying habitat structures VIII Arable land, rich in 2 ha accompanying habitat structures XI Mixed arable land and 2 ha grassland area Stuttgart Region (approx. 3600 km²) XII Agriculturally improved 2 ha grassland 50 km 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Information on land-use transformation for regional development policy • Geometric conditioning (individual treatment of cadastre boundaries)  (1) boundaries retained: parcel corresponds to one, single homogenous image object, no change or update  (2) boundaries removed: parcels merged because of internal homogeneity, change of geometry  (3) boundaries introduced: single parcel is spectrally heterogeneous and split according to spectral behaviour, change of geometry (mainly forest) Lang et al, 2007, Tiede et al., 2007 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Information on land-use transformation for regional development policy  Thematic conditioning (functionally homogenous units, minimum size)  31,698 biotope complexes were delineated for the whole Stuttgart Region  Average size: 11.5 ha Lang et al, 2007, Tiede et al., 2007 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Information on land-use transformation for regional development policy Automatically composed Elementary units … How to validate? Manually composed 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 18
    • Information on IDP camp growth for post-conflict disaster management Automatically extracted dwelling units  Calculation of density zones  development over time 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 19
    • Other multidimensional spatial phenomena … e.g. Vulnerability to flood hazard (Kienberger et al., 2009) 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research 20
    • Sensitivity: high-level indicator for SEA Source: Kienberger et al, 2009 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Example vulnerability units  Decomposition of vulnerability into domains and indicators  Regionalisation are applied to derive discrete vulnerability units  Weighting according to relative importance (expert knowledge) Algorithm after Baatz & Schäpe (2000) Kienberger et al., 2009 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • OBIA – Meeting the challenges  After Kuhn (1962), data scarcity is a characteristic of paradigm shift  no: data abundance, affluences, but lack of solutions  Algorithms, methods and technology (rule-based vs. adaptive learning, genetic algorithms, Markov chains ...) to be fused (?)  From image understanding to problem understanding (user- oriented)  Make products ready for further analysis, ready to be integrated in daily workflows  Tackle challenges of the world (monitoring, ...).  Are we using the proper tools for solving specific problems (segmentation, generalisation, cartography) 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • OBIA – Strengthening the strengths  Multi-multi-dimensionality (multi-disciplinary, multi user profiles, multi application)  Network, “trans”  Tight linkages between industry, research and academia.  How do we turn data to information? Listen to the customers / users.  Obey efforts in data models, standardization  Validation / benchmarking: Not only data become more complex, but also the automation process  Common vocabulary, ontology, reflecting on ideas  Sustainable use … teach and multiply it! Make students become acquainted early enough 2009 Definiens User Summit | S. Lang | „Object validity …“ | 3 Nov 2009 | www.zgis.at/research
    • Thank you very much! stefan.lang@sbg.ac.at Contact: stefan.lang@sbg.ac.at Activities were been carried out drawing from various funding sources, in the framework of the Salzburg Academic Centre of Excellence SACE.