Bis term paperUbiquitous computing Smart office By, Deepika agrawal B1ooo7 Pgp-1
SMART OFFICEAbstractUbiquitous computing is exploring quite different from a single computer to Personal Digital Assistantsbut the physical and mental hindrance comes in all sizes and shapes. With the personal andprofessional information being collected, transmitted and stored in the office computer in greatervolume, the opportunities for the data interception, theft, and be it official and unofficial will bediscriminating. To make any office a smart one, too much of technical know-how is needed for whichthe requirement of technical personnel is high and less number of them is at present.What Is Smart office?Smart office is a concept of Ubiquitous Computing where office works will be carried out in a simple,communicative and information processing way to gain fast information in less time, productivity,communication and value. Unlike traditional office where there are problems related to security ofdata, information processing, forgery, delay of tasks, the ubiquitous computing environment in smartoffice will support solutions in such challenges. Designed specifically for competitive markets andmodern era, Smart Office brings together utilities customer information, external demographic dataand business intelligence to allow utilities better target their customers.In the Smart Office, computers will be embedded in the environment to provide autonomous, learnand cooperate features. And this is only possible through the use of agents for a specific task andthen collaborate it into one to develop a reliable and secure environment.Rational and benefitsSmart workspaces assist in the seamless integration of people with computers within a physicalenvironment. Basically furnished with networked computing devices and sensors, these rooms aredesigned to assist people in pursuit of everyday work goals such as finding information, collaborationwith colleagues, and so on. Smart work spaces are a subject of much research around the world, anda key enabler of smart rooms is the use of context awareness to link pervasive computing deviceswith users within their physical environment.In most mobile, wearable and ubiquitous computing application, knowing the user‟s location,absolutely or relative to other parts of the environment is important for the seamless integration ofpeople with computing devices within the physical environment thus the work of intelligence comesinto effect.
In its ultimate form, ubiquitous computing means any computing device, while moving with us, canbuild incrementally dynamic and intelligent models of its various environments and configure itsservices accordingly.The major characteristics of this Smart Office is the fusion of RFID technology, databasemanagement, data mining, real-time information visualization and interactive web applicationtechnologies into an operational integrated system deployed in an office. The developed systemtracks client or staff attendees, analyses the tracking data in real time and provides various servicesto the attendees, such as a real time snapshot of the daily attendees, such as a real time snapshot ofthe daily attendees, the ability to locate peers and clients in the office centre, and the ability to searchfor events of unconditional circumstances. The results were revealing in terms of both the potential ofthe developed technology and the dynamic environment of the office.The various schedulers, networked computer systems, projectors, walls, etc would be interacting withthe person and providing and assisting him in his appointments, presentations based on the gainedknowledge or learning from the context.Smart Office is a new, flexible matching set of services built from the ground up on a fully scalablebusiness grade network. It covers the entire spectrum of modern business services be it from internet,e-mail and security through to PC backup and voice, and since it modular, you can tailor the precisesolution to meet your needs right now and then grow the solution as and when you need to over time.How ubiquitous computing fit in the scenario?Office is a place where the more efficient the work is done, the more the productivity of the companyor organization increases. Organization have faced a lot of hurdles to improve the scenarios alreadypresent in the office environments since it would lead to lesser manpower and more efficient workperformance. This is always regretted by a worker.But the application of ubiquitous computing would help to evolve the system from that of a boring,cumbersome task to one of the most interesting and fun to work with places.The main application areas of ubiquitous computing which have removed the loopholes in the officeenvironment are numerous but speaking of the most relevant ones here.In a very general sense, the technology facilitate groups of people to gain new forms of social power,ways to organize and coordinate their interactions, and exchanges just in time and just in place.Especially the advantages in the area of interface technology will lead to considerable benefits onuser level. Today, office workers usually work with single user devices, which require manual userinput via standardized interfaces. With the emergence of ubiquitous computing, those explicit andstatic interaction paradigms will be enhanced through new input and output concepts, like tangibleuser interface or ambient displays. Sensor-enhanced environments will enable implicit interactionmechanisms, which are unknown in existing work environments with traditional computational
devices. By automating routine task and thereby releasing office workers from vacuous workactivities, smart office environments bear the potential to increase job satisfaction.On company level, the most important benefits, gained by the introduction of Ubiquitous Computingtechnologies, are probably the optimization of existing processes as well as the ability to implementnew and even more efficient business processes. The ability of professionals to communicate withtheir peers, either in the same office or on the other side of the world, and to have an infinite world ofinformation and intelligence to facilitate decision-making, will greatly expand with the emergence ofUbiquitous Computing. In addition, smart office, through which office workers could connectthemselves with an increasing remote and geographically distributed world, will significantly contributeto effective team work. Such sensor-enhanced work environments will also enable new ways ofdynamic resource planning and context- adaptor time scheduling, based on real-time information fromvarious, digital and non-digital sources. While tangible user interfaces provide a variety of directbenefits for employees, such new forms of interaction are likely to increase the efficiency of officeworkers, and thereby indirectly generate additional financial benefits for companies. Intuitiveinteraction mechanisms are not only reducing the everyday processing times, they also decrease theinitial period of vocational adjustment to new office applications.Current and future manifestationCurrent manifestationThere‟s one thing that we all can agree upon: we all want safe, high quality professional life whichdelivers the hard work of ours at timely and efficient manner. The employee wants to be treated bycompetent and knowledgeable office providers using the best and most cost-effective procedures andtechniques that result in the best possible outcomes for the least cost. A normal person who isworking in a multinational company (MNC) spends 10-12 hours of his precious time working hard andwhat does he get in return. If on a personal note we see this issue then indeed the answer would be“nothing”. A balanced life is really very important in our daily life. There is no fun in driving a car if yourback hurts or shopping is not enjoyable if your mind is full of tensions just because you have beenconstantly working for long stretched hours with a thought of non-security in your professional life. Aprimary problem with the current working culture of any office is the system‟s failure to make thecontinuous improvement of quality and efficiency a top priority. It is widely accepted that informationtechnology is an essential part of the solution. There isn‟t any kind of security at the door step of theoffice building where anyone can step into it and take the advantage of. Besides that, you are actuallynot sure of the files which is being transferred by you is safe enough. There are very small thingswhich actually enclose many reasons for an unsatisfied person working day night in the MNC just tomake his family and himself happy.
Future manifestationNowadays computing technology research is focused on the development of smart environments.Following that line of thought server smart office projects has been developed and their appliancesare much diversified. The appliances include projects in the context of workplace or everyday living,entertainment, play and education. Such “intelligent” or “smart” environments and systems interactwith human beings in a helpful, adaptive and unobtrusive way. It is indeed vital to design and makeeffective use of physical components such as sensors, controllers and smart devices which trackseach and every at the work place easy and undemanding. The moment a person enters in thebuilding, automatically his attendance of that day has been updated and with the help of thebiometrics that individual can enter into the respective cabin and automatically he will be intimatedabout the meetings and all, in short, life doesn‟t remain the same as it used to be working in a normaloffice. In addition to these organizational benefits, everyone is being offered a variety of possibilitiesfor facilitating business activities with different companies. Potential benefits include the support ofcommunication and awareness in virtual teams as well as of planning and coordinating activities incross-company projects, or the exchange of real-time data among companies in a supply chain.Recommended prototypeExecution: the smart prototype 1 explains the start of the smart office environment where theemployee stands at the office entrance and authenticates himself at the biometric sensor. The sensor
or the agent authenticates him if he is office person else denies him the entry in the office. The data toauthenticate is fetched from the central database server of the office which contains the informationabout each member. An entry for the day is also made in the database with the timing and date.Secondly, when the person wants to enter his cabin RFID identification authenticates him for thesame. When the user indentifies the right person it makes an entry in the database for the same. Theoffice sensors or agents working in the cabin such as those of temperature control, brightness levelcustomize themselves as per the intelligence level. This has been feed through the daily contextawareness of the system and personal choices. The interactive screen automatically displays therecent files and presentations which the user had been working.Execution: proceeding from the prototype 1, the interactive screen in the office cabin displaysemployee official information. The screen is just not a simple screen but is highly interactive voiceguided, posture guided one. The screen is also a personal scheduler which manages all the meetingsof the employee as directed to it. The screen keeps the employee alert and informed about thescheduled meeting prior to it. It also manages all the data required in the meeting. When meeting timearrives and employee does schedule meeting prior to it. It also manages all the data required in themeeting. When the meeting time arrives and employee does not need to copy the data from the officecabin to the meeting room the interactive screen itself sends the information the particular meeting inwhich the meeting is schedules. If the meeting is with any of the clients, the data goes to the meetingroom 1 and for the meeting with the project team members to the meeting room 2.
The door on the meeting rooms displays the agenda of the meeting and checks in the employees asthey enter. When everybody has arrived for the meeting, the display on the conference room doorlists the meeting as “in progress” and dims the window to minimize distraction from the busy hallwayoutside. The embedded systems loads all the files needed for the meeting and as discussions goes itworks in the background fetching the discussion related files from previous files or internet. After themeeting is over it saves the file and sends it to the personal information database of the employee.Execution: proceeding from the previous prototype if the meeting is scheduled for the conferenceroom, the way must be an important one. So, the scheduler alerts the employee in quiet advance. Theconference room has the meeting agenda, meeting members and the screen has the informationrelated to the meeting topics. The room has the best communication devices and the sensors rangingfrom the interactive table to the virtual conference facility. The lighting temperature, sittingarrangement predetermined. The discussion and file arrangement is done both on the table and thescreen.Final prototype explaining the employee‟s smart working environment and interaction with it.
Relation with ubiquitous agentsThe era of ubiquitous computing is marking its presence over the traditional pc from which is likely toget replaced by the former. However, the use of ubiquitous computing would not have mattered muchif there had not been the concept of agents that showed the simple way to bring out a new era oftechnology. Agents do exist of different types be it intelligence, autonomous, proactive, reactive,
persistent and each of these collaborate with others to form a multi agent systems. Obviously, theadvantage of multi agent systems is clear in smart systems. Let‟s look what are the agents that makethe smart office that has a learning, collaborative, learning and autonomous features.Agents to be used are described below:- 1) Motion tracking agent: this agent is responsible for identifying and verifying each person the office. The agent checks if the person entering the office is an employee or staff of the office. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. So, the RFID is a wireless identification. This assigns a unique card number for each employee/staff. An employee/staff places the RFID card within 5cm distance from the RFID reader. The RFID reader writes down the time, data and type of departure/arrival. The type of arrival/departure is indicated on LCD display. The display also indicates the current time. The interface software which is available with this system is responsible for attendance report in the customer preferred format. Attendance processing (Interface) software can also be integrated with the payroll software for salary calculation and employee tracking. The employee or staff is then expected to move to his designated cabin/counter. If the employee or staff moves out of his cabin/counter, this agent connects to the connected client agent (to be followed later) to display that the employee/staff is offline. The environment that exists is dynamic. Such an agent is of autonomous type as this regularly tracks the position of the respected person. 2) Cabin manager agent: while motional agent tracks employee/staff position w.r.t. office centre, the cabin manager agent is responsible for allowing employee/staff to their designated counter/cabin. Here a biometric device is used to authenticate the person and on verification the person gets access to the resources or the agents deployed in his/her cabin. The biometric device used is Hand Palm vein where the person gets his resources ready to be activated and taken control. The agent regards the person as the manager of the room. Such agent is of type Proactive. 3) Electrical and information technology agent: as soon as the person gets recognized by the cabin manager agent, the person is allowed to enter the cabin. All electrical and computational devices and appliances take to soothe the environment as set by the person to the agent. Examples include such as setting the temperature of the cabin according to the weather of the day, computational devices and appliances take no time to soothe the environment as set by the person to the agent. Examples include such as setting the temperature of the cabin according to the weather of the day, computational devices showing time left in number of seconds or even scheduling the hardware/software configuration of the agents. Such an agent is of type intelligence. 4) Routine ant task agent: after the motion tracking agent had done its job, it‟s time for this agent to take place. As soon as an employee/staff takes seat in the cabin/counter of the office,
he/she is informed of the appointments that he had to do and the task to be performed in this and the coming days. Any special/emergency notice information is displayed as very important. The tasks to be performed are shown in terms of time and resources available along with various options of solutions to complete it. After the end of the day, the pay is calculated by the agent based on the work done. Such an agent is of type intelligence. It can also be said to be an interface agent as it must has both autonomous and learning features.5) Communication agent: this agent connects offices spread through multiple location and creates a network. The head of the smart office can monitor and examine what employees of other department in this office as well as offices located at multiple locations are working. For communication among heads of different offices, a request has to be made and so communication will take place if the request has been accepted. Such an agent is of type social. The environment that exists is dynamic.6) Maintenance agent: this agent is responsible for performing tasks related to the maintenance of office infrastructure and equipments. When a defect has been detected by the agent it will alert the respective employees/ staff informing the resources required to correct that. Suchan agent is of type intelligence. The environment that exists is deterministic.7) Client agent: this agent is responsible for performing one of the most important tasks of the office. Unlike traditional offices, where clients have to come to get their job done, the smart office provides a special way of connecting to clients to get their work done. Clients don‟t need to come to office. Instead they can contact the employees of the office through the use of client agent over internet. Clients can get the appointment booked with employees and put
forward their problems/tasks. The employees on the other hand can give solutions on the basis of the best possible choices available the agent informs the client that the person is offline. Such an agent is a combination of type adaptive and reactive i.e. a heterogeneous agent. The environment that prevails is continuous.Importance of security and ethicsThe past few years witnessed the emergence of Ubiquitous Computing systems as the mostpromising technology to take advantage of the portable and embedded devices. This concise glanceinto the morning routine of an office going reveals just a few aspects of daily life that can be enhancedby technologies which do not look much different from those with which are already familiar in thedesktop computing world. However, there are many technologies which are being used but they areinvisible, operating in the background of the environment providing essential safety, andcommunication support to individuals in day to day work and which in results makes the work moreeasy and convenient. The possible effects of Anything, Anytime, Anywhere computing on theproductivity of an important part of the work force known as knowledge workers are a significant areaof speculation and a subject of worth explanation. Security and Ethics in Ubiquitous Computing is afield of study that is concerned with privacy of the user and with distinguishing right from wrong, andgood from bad. It analyzes the morality of human behaviours policies, laws and social structures. Asignificant exception to this is found in the area of awareness, where a complete, integrated networkof sensors is built into the office or we can say edifice to create a “SMART OFFICE” environment,controlled centrally, and usually focused upon the office‟s a smart one or those undergoing majorremodelling, building in the elements required for a smart office is done quite effectively, with wiringadded prior to completion of walls, requires the use of RF (Radio Frequency) technologies whichhave advanced dramatically in the past decades as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) in thecontribution of the researches in the Ubiquitous Computing. The technology which makes the office asmart one is the use of Biometrics devices. It is used in security and access control applications tomean measurable physical characteristics of a person that can be checked on an automated basis.RF IdentificationAutomated identification technologies like RFID have valuable uses, especially in connection with theongoing works in office, RFID particularly useful where it can be embedded within an object such asany important documentary of the office or any files of the same, RFID tags communicate informationby radio wave through antennae on small computer chips attached to objects so that such objectsmay be identified, located, and tracked. The fundamental architecture of RFID technology involves atag, a reader (or scanning device), and a database, which stores the information.
A portable RFID can be pointed-into offices or wherever files are located, and when the RFID readerdetects the missing file, the RFID reader will beep to alert staff that the file has been found. Thisallows staff to find missing files in minutes. Portable RFID Readers include a drop-down list of officelocations, so that files in circulation can be periodically inventoried to identify files that have beentransferred from person to place or place to place. In office, the use of RFID is intended to achieve anumber of different goals: Facilities managers use identification to control access to sensitiveinfrastructures that may be damaged or used to harm any individual. They use to control access tofacilitate where sensitive information about other important files or documents may be kept.People entering the officeThe major use of RFID in this part is that the moment the people enters the office, with the help RadioFrequency Identification, automatically every individual‟s attendance of that particular day has beenupdated, because of which it can be easily judged who among those passerby are not related to theoffice or isn‟t the workers of the office. Some of the benefits of using are listed below: Ensure that only authorized readers can read the tags, and that only authorized personnel have access to the readers. Maintain the integrity of the data on the chip and stored in the database. Ensure that the critical data is fully available when necessary. Avoid electronic collisions when multiple tags and/ or readers are present. RFID cameras on doors of every office.
The use of Radio Frequency Identification at every door office makes the work of identifying anyperson who is not related to the office much more easy. With the help of having RFID cameras atevery door of the office the personnel sitting at the CCTV camera can easily make out who is the oddone out of the working professionals. Use of RFID in detecting documents.It takes some time to check a traditional identification document. The process typically includeshandling the document to a verifier, who much review the information on the card and authorize thebearer to pass, record the bearer‟s passing, or, if appropriate, detain the bearer. The verifier mustalso compare the identifiers on the card with the bearer to ensure that the bearer is the personidentified by the card. The use of RFID could dispense with one of these steps by elimination thehand-over of the card. The other two steps are not affected by RFID. The verifier must still reviewauthorizing information and compare the identifiers on the card with the bearer.Along with that, encryptions allow information to be encoded in such a way that it is hidden fromcasual view and any attempt at alteration of forgery can be reliably detected. Communicationinformation from an identification card via RFID allows encryption to be used, suppressing potentialattacks on the integrity of the identification system through forgery and alteration.Biometrics: Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person base on physiological or behavioural characteristics. Among the features measured are; face, fingerprints, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retinal, vein, and voice. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. As the level of security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the need for highly secure identification and personal verification technologies is becoming apparent. In office, biometric-based solutions are able to provide for confidential financial transactions and personal data privacy. Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation,
network, and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and web security.Use of biometrics in office for time attendance,access controlIn many of the offices, there is vast use of palm-vein recognition for the security point of view. Themoment an individual puts the palm on the system, the system relies on an infrared image of the palmof a user‟s hand. It reveals the pattern of veins present under the skin and form this algorithm canconfirm identity of the user. It takes into account identifying features such as the number of veins,their position and the points at which they cross and offers a higher level of security than competingtechnologies including voice print, facial recognition, fingerprint recognition and iris scan. so only theperson related to office building can renter to the restricted areas, because he or she has to passthrough the palm-vein recognition.Interaction with ubiquitous environmentWith the amount of information technology constantly increasing and getting more and more ambient,future work environments are supposed to be intelligent, adaptive, intuitive and interactive. Suchsmart office environments will enable office workers to communicate, collaborate and work in new andmore efficient ways. The theoretical advantages range from increased work productivity through time-saving operations to higher work satisfaction through attentive and reactive environments. In the
context of knowledge-based enterprises, the usage of Ambient Intelligence technologies can lead toconsiderable benefits in a variety of areas and on different organizational levels.Proposed office environmentHere a scenario is presented integrating the major components of intelligence and meaning in anoffice environment, making it a smart one.It‟s the beginning of the day and x has a major presentation to work on for a sales call. Two weeksago, when the meeting was set up, she instructed her calendar to schedule two additional meetingswith her team to prepare for the presentation. The calendar here depicts an example of mediamanagement and handling. It is about time for the second meeting, and checks off attendees as therenter. The concepts of natural integration and sensor technology are working in a duo. The giant“work board” on one wall of the room has preloaded all the documents related to the presentation andis waiting for input. When everybody has arrived for the meeting, the display on the conference roomdoor lists the meeting as “in progress” and dims the window to minimize distraction from the busyhallway outside, applying the component of computational intelligence . The team reviews thepresentation , X spots a section that flows poorly . after discussing it with the team , she calls the workboard and tells it to move the section on product features to just before the section on optionalservices using the ubiquitous communication features. The meeting covers several additional topicsand then disbands. The embedded system in the work board automatically saves the updated files asthe attendees exit the room.On the way back to her desk, x stops by her friend y‟s desk to ask him a question. The naturalinteraction component senses her approach, y‟s computer works in the background to loaddocuments that the two of them have worked in the past weeks, should any of them be required. X isgreeted by y, which is going for a meeting of his own. “We need input on pricing for this service,” saysy. “can you join us?” x can spare some time, so she elects to participate in the meeting. When xenters the conference room, her calendar automatically updates to include the new meeting depicting
the concepts of adaptive software and context awareness. After y introduces the topic, x says, “myteam came up with a template to determine pricing for a slightly different services. Maybe we can useit as a starting point.” X approaches the work board, and a list of her public files appears. The files aresorted in alphabetical order, with the files whose contents are related to the topic of the meetinghighlighted, as per the adaptive software concept, x touches the template file, and the documentopens. After some discussions, the template is modified and is ready for testing. Meeting attendeesand processes, with the final price displayed. Here the component of computational intelligenceworks. After everyone is satisfied with the revised template, the meeting ends. After the meeting xgoes to check her video mail. As she approaches a nearby public communications portal, the screenshows the four new video mails waiting for her. One video mail is from a longstanding client. Shetouches the message and watches as the client by recounts a story of superior service received fromteam headed by x. X tells the video mail system to add the message to her file on the topic, andrecords a thank-you message to the client. The sensor technology and embedded systems performsthis task.Issues facedOne of the problems is security and privacy threat. According to the statistics there is a continuousincrease in the number of reported incidents of computer security breaches and vulnerabilities. Theseincidents are mainly reported in case of access to restricted regions and areas. Moreover sometimesthe problem of authorization also occurs in office environment, where sometimes unwontedly thewrong data is been misplaced by the right data. The mobility of device is also highly affected by thisproblem of authentication, as with the increase in mobility the security vulnerability of devices alsoincreases. Another issue is of ethics. Computer ethics refers to the ways in which ethical traditionsand norms are tested, applied, stretched, negotiated, and broken in the realm of computertechnology. Another issue faced was that of agents interactivity and selection in the ubiquitous smartoffice environment. The interactivity and interoperability of various devices is an area of extremeimportance. The data to be processed and interpreted properly needs to be communicated in thecorrect form by interactive devices that assist each other in fulfilling the demands of the overallcommunicative and easy to feel environment. Though there are a number of issues faced in gettingagents implemented in the smart office scenario, the issues related to “intelligence and meaning inubiquitous computing” and “security and ethics in ubiquitous computing” too had a number ofchallenges in the ubiquitous computing environment. It‟s time to take a look at these two challengeswith respect to issues that encountered in smart office.There are a number of issues faced by agents to get implemented in smart office. Issues like how they individually perform their tasks do exist. Even after performing tasks there are issues that need to be solved to get them work in collaboration. Problems existed what hardware and software configuration would provide compatibility features in the smart office environment.
Budget is one of the main issues faced for implementation of these agents and mobility or scalability follows these down the list.Issues in terms of “intelligence and meaning of ubiquitous computing” and “security and ethics inubiquitous computing” are stated below:- 1) Ubiquitous computing is quite an emerging computational technology and its scope is set to rd be the 3 wave of computing now-a-days. While there has been a debate behind the power of ubiquitous computing like whether there is any intelligence or meaning associated with it. The biggest problems were in terms of research gap that laid the mystery behind it. 2) Security is one of the main reasons to consider for any computational appliance. And, ubiquitous computing which is set to provide anytime and anywhere service, the risk of data theft and ethical policies too stand at a critical stage. The set of ethical guidelines to be considered needs to be highlighted.new learning’s to improveWith the amount of information technology constantly increasing and getting more and more ambient,future work environments are supposed to be intelligent, adaptive, intuitive and interactive. Suchoffice environments will enable office workers to communicate, collaborative and work in new andmore efficient ways. Introducing Ubiquitous Environment in office dealt from increased workproductivity through time-saving operations to higher work satisfaction through attentive and reactiveenvironments. Studying more about Ubiquitous Agents, we came to know that there are many typesof agents as of that intelligent, Autonomous, active, proactive and many more. When we work withmultiple agents, then there are three types, cooperative, social and adaptive. While working on theissues faced, learnt about some facts about collaborative agents which is as follows: Cooperate + learn= collaborative learning agent Learn + autonomous= interface Cooperate + autonomous= collaborative This theory gave us a relief from the issues which we faced as far as compatibility issueswere concerned. In addition, smart environments, through which office workers could connectthemselves with an increasingly remote and geographically distributed world, will significantlycontribute to the effective team work. Such sensor-enhanced work environments will also enable newways of dynamic resources planning and context-adapted time scheduling, based on real-timeinformation from various, digital and non-digital sources.
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