Praxis Business School BRAND TRACKER Phase I –Brand Image Measurement A report Submitted to Prof. GovindrajanIn partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course Product and Brand Management On 14th August 2011 ByAnindita Choudhary B10002Deepika Agrawal B10007Sushmita Agrawal B10035Arunabha Bagchi B10044
LETTER OF TRANSMITTALDove14/08/2011To, Prof. Srinivas GovindrajanSubject:We are enclosing our report on Dove in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the course.Anindita ChoudharyDeepika AgrawalSushmita AgrawalArunabha Bagchi
ContentsExecutive summaryHistory and evolution of DoveInstruments of data collection Brand Asset Valuator Model LadderingFindings and conclusions Presentation of findings and conclusion for Brand Asset Valuator model Presentation of findings and conclusion for laddering methodAnnexureReferences
History and evolution of doveHistory of the brandDove was first launched in the US in 1957; is one of the leading brands of Unilever globally.It was launched years after Unilever acquired soap factory De Duif in The Netherlands, fromwhich the brand name Dove is derived. Dove first appeared on the market in a decade 50 inthe U.S., and is produced in order to care for burns victims were due to the war.Dove has been available in India since 1995 It is now the worlds #1 cleansing brand. Doveproducts are manufactured in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Ireland,Netherlands, Thailand, Turkey and United States. The products are sold in more than 35countries and are offered for both women and men. Doves logo is a silhouette profile of thebrands namesake bird, the colour of which often varies. The Dove Campaign for Beauty hasmade the topic of beauty itself controversial, but marketers have kept the message itselfpositive. Dove has its footprint in 80 countries worldwide with a range of superior productsfrom bar, lotions, body washes, face care and creams.Dove brand now worth 111.8 million only its own table revenue from retail with 35% of thepopulation of the UK buy products from Dove in 2003.
Evolution of the Brand 1980 1990 1950 1970 1995-2001 1940 1960 Leading Dove Refined to Popularity ExtensionFormula for brand beauty original Launched in Increased of Dove’s Dove Bar recommend wash Dove the market as a milder range of(Mild Soap) ed by successfully Beauty Bar soap products Physicians launched While many people feel that Dove is a long time in England, but the actual bathroom Dove soap only came here in 1992, the brand name in children 4th in the list of Lever Faberge. Preeminent quality of the product is reflected through the exploration objective campaign with new ads, with a guarantee from the customer and a brand name – “Dove do not dry your skin type as the normal soap “This has helped Dove quickly hold top positions in the market in 1997. Dove has been positioned throughout its history without referring to it as "soap", but as a "beauty bar" with one-fourth cleansing cream; they stress its moisturizing of skin while washing in contrast to the drying effects of regular soaps (which their advertising calls simply "soap"). Real beauty can only be found on the inside and every woman deserves to feel beautiful. The image: Real beauty is portrayed by women who do not have "runway model" on their resumes -- they are the women passing by in grocery aisles or sitting in the office next door. The result: A dialog between Dove and its consumers about the definition of beauty. Doves marketing push defied conventional stereotypes and advocated for unconventional beauty and self-esteem. But before Unilever committed to the controversial campaign, it secured evidence that the majority of their consumers would relate to it. "The Real Truth about Beauty," a global research report commissioned by Dove, reported that only two percent of women worldwide describe themselves as beautiful.
In 1979, the phrase "cleansing cream" was replaced with "moisturizer cream". In 1979, aPennsylvania dermatologist showed that Dove dried and irritated skin significantly less thanordinary soaps. As a result of this study, Unilever started aggressive marketing and wonmore than 24% of the market by 2003In 2002, Unilever downsized from 1,600 brands to 400, nominating Dove to be one of itsmaster brands. No longer just a beauty bar, Dove was to be a beauty brand, encompassingproducts such as body wash, deodorant, hair care and body lotion. Nothing in its heritagehad prepared the brand to represent all of these functions. Dove now had to come up with amessage that could speak for all its products.Dove launched a” real beauty campaign” and this campaign was launched in 2002. In thiscampaign all the dove products were united under one message and it was deliveredthrough the traditional media. The billboards were placed strategically in locations such asGrand Central Station, where they would be sure to catch the eye of producers andreporters. The intention of the advertisement was to engage people to participate in thecampaign, and at that they were successful. While "fat" eventually logged the most votes,Dove marketers were not discouraged. They decided to take the concept a step further andtalk about self-esteem in 2005. It purports to be "an agent of change to educate and inspiregirls on a wider definition of beauty and to make them feel more confident aboutthemselves". To this end, Dove created a number of largely online-only short films, includingDaughters, Evolution, Onslaught and Amy. Dove used YouTube to ask their consumers tohelp create the Self-Esteem Campaign. To get things started, Dove posted a fast-motion,one-minute film entitled, "Dove Evolution," which races through the cosmetic artistry andPhotoshop "plastic surgery" that ultimately transforms a models features into an etherealface that then appears on a billboard. The film ends with the tag line: "No wonder ourperception of beauty is distorted." Products Hair care Skin care Antiperspirants Dove intense repair Creme Original Dove hair fall rescue Fresh moisture Silk dry Dove daily shine Gentle exfoliating Clear touch Dove dryness care Dove dandruff care
Instruments of Data CollectionBrand Asset Valuator ModelY&R (originally Young & Rubicam) is a marketing and communications company specializingin advertising, digital and social media, sales promotion, direct marketing and brand identityconsulting. They developed the Brand Asset Valuator Model. The BAV model measures thebrand health based on four components namely-Differentiation, Relevance, Esteem andKnowledge.Differentiation –This is the ability of the brand to stand apart from its competitors i.e. - howit distinguishes itself from its competitors and what prevents it from becoming acommodity. A brand should be as unique as possible and more unique the brand is greateris the brand value.Relevance-Relevance tells us how well the consumer connects with the brand, it also helpsus know whether the product has mass appeal or it’s a niche product. It tells us about thesegment to which the product belongs and it also tell us about the household penetration.Esteem- It tells us what the consumer’s perception about the brand is and also tells us aboutthe inclining or declining popularity of the brand.Knowledge- Knowledge tells us about the consumer’s awareness level about the brand andalso how intimate the consumer is with the brand.We have used a standard questionnaire for the five brands (… Questions each).Ourquestionnaire consists of both close ended and open ended questions which helps us obtainand analyze the data from both a qualitative and quantitative angle providing us with abetter insight in the subject.MethodologyWe have conducted a survey amongst a heterogeneous population (they differ in terms ofregions from which they hail socio-economic status, taste and preferences, etc).Sample Size for Survey: 47
LadderingLaddering is an interview technique which is one-on-one in nature. This technique isparticularly helpful in eliciting goals and underlying values which helps the user in nascentstages of his research. It is an unstructured approach trying to probe deep into theinterviewees’ psyche and analysing his responses to come up with the “reason” why andhow the product is important to them so as to derive from that the hidden motivating factorof the consumer behind buying the product. Laddering techniques involve creating,reviewing and modifying of hierarchical knowledge, often in the form of ladders (i.e. treediagrams).Why is it better than the “Zaltman MetaphorElicitation Technique”?Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) is a patented market research tool. Patent#5436830 was issued on July 25, 1995. ZMET is a technique that elicits both conscious andespecially unconscious thoughts by exploring peoples non-literal or metaphoricexpressions. It was developed by Dr. Gerald Zaltman at the Harvard Business School in theearly 1990s.Reasons as to why laddering is better than ZMET:- Zmet is mostly done on unconscious thoughts and it explores a person’s non-literal or metaphoric expression and these are subject to relatively more interpretation and hence are subject to the skill of the person doing the interpretation which depends on experience and technique used and hence the results might be less accurate than laddering. Zmet is more time consuming and needs a larger amount of resources than laddering Zmet requires trained people who know the meaning and also needs identification of the hidden motivations for example using hearing aid is looked upon as old and flawed and this is why people postpone the purchase of a hearing aid though they cite that cost is the reason to postpone the purchase. This job is very technical and requires a lot of analytical skills. Laddering however does not require any such specific techniques and hence requires relatively less trained professionals. Moreover in case of ZMET getting such labour force can be a problem and the costs of maintain such a trained force may be very high. Zmet is more popular with non-profit organizations .It is more widely used to address organizational issues.
Findings And Conclusions1. Presentation of findings and conclusion forBrand Asset Valuator modelThe analysis is to study the differentiation, relevance, esteem and knowledge of Dove. Thecompetitor brands for our study are Sunsilk, Pantene, Garnier and Olay.Brand ParityPrior to the analysis of differentiation, relevance, esteem and knowledge of Dove, it wasimportant to understand whether consumers care about their choice between differentbrands of personal care products. The 47 respondents were asked whether brand wasimportant for them when it comes to personal care products and these were the followingresponses:- Dove 0% 4% yes no may be 96%Thus from here it can be concluded that respondents do see the difference between thebrands.
Brand KnowledgeKnowledge is the extent of the consumer’s awareness of the brand and understanding itsidentity. The awareness levels about the brand, and what it means, shows the intimacy thatconsumers share with the brand. True knowledge of the brand comes through building ofthe brand.For measuring the brand knowledge of dove, the brand was compared with its competitivebrands.The first question was on the logo of the brand. The respondents were showed the logo offew brands with the names removed. This showed the awareness which the respondentshave of the brand. The brand with highest number of correct answers proved to be moreaware in the minds of the respondents.Similarly, brand knowledge of the respondents was also judged by asking them to identifythe taglines and celebrities involved with the brands.The results of knowledge for the five brands are as follows- The table indicates points. Brand Knowledge Questions Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay Logo 43 45 44 45 19 Taglines 10 4 10 27 5 celebrities 23 25 31 24 34 Sub total 76 74 85 96 58 Percentile 60 40 80 100 20 Brand Knowledge 100 80 60 40 20 Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay
Garnier is highest on knowledge. For instance, in India Garnier has floated its tagline as“Apna Khayal Rakhna”. So, it helps to easily connect the tagline with the brand.Dove comes fourth in knowledge which is 40 percentile. The survey indicated that peopleare not much aware about the brand.Dove was launched in India in 1995. It not being an old brand still keeps many peopleunaware about it. Also not many celebrities are seen in the advertisements by Dove. Weoften notice a very common face in their advertisements. This could be a reason why peopleare less aware of the brand.Another survey was done to know about the top of mind recall of respondents when itcomes to the soap category of each brand. Soap category was picked up as during ladderingthe brand above was often related to just soap instead of being a complete personal carebrand. Assuming that there was lack of awareness among the respondents of the brandbeing a complete personal care brand, we took the core competency of the brand which issoap. TOM 25 20 15 1st Recall 10 2nd Recall 3rd Recall 5 4th Recall 0 5th Recall doy vivel lux lifeboy cinthol nivea dettol olay pears santoor fiama dove savlon himalaya godrej lirel margo yardley pamolive medimex jhonson fair and glow pondsDove brand is in top of the mind recall of 23 respondents out of a total of 47 which clearlyindicates higher level of knowledge and esteem in the soap category.
Another aspect we wanted to know through our survey was whether respondents knowthat Dove is a complete personal care brand. The response we got from the 47 respondentswas:- 21 16 8 2 0 Strongly Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly agree disagreeEsteemEsteem is the perceived quality and consumer perceptions about the growing or decliningpopularity of a brand. Does the brand keep its promises? The consumer’s response to amarketer’s brand building activity is driven by his perception of two factors: quality andpopularity. Both vary by country and culture.For measuring esteem of dove the following questions were asked.Respondents were asked the brand with which they would associate themselves with. Ifrespondents have esteem for a brand, only then would they want to be associated with it.Another question was asked on brand promise. If a brand delivers its promise, then esteemfor the brand increases as consumers will have a better perception of the brand.Trust also indicated the regard the consumer had for the brand. So, we asked therespondents to mention the brands they trust the most.The results of the survey are- The table indicates points. Brand Esteem Questions Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay Associate 5 23 5 3 11 Promise 7 20 6 7 7 Trust 5 22 7 9 4 Sub- total 17 65 18 19 22 Percentile 20 100 40 60 80
Brand Esteem 100 80 60 40 20 Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier OlaySurvey shows that Dove is highest on esteem. The reason for this could be that theperceived quality and consumer perceptions about dove are good and its popularity isgrowing. The brand is keeping its promises. The consumers response to a marketers brand-building activity is driven by his perception of two factors: quality and popularity, both ofwhich vary by country and culture, which in case of Dove is high in case of Dove indicatinggood health of the Brand.Brand StatureEsteem and knowledge together create Brand stature, which is a “report card” on a brand’spast performance and which determines the current power of the brand. Brand Stature 100 40 Brand Knowledge Brand EsteemThus it can be seen that Dove is high on esteem but very low on knowledge.
DifferentiationDifferentiation is the ability for a brand to be distinguished from its Competitors. A brandshould be as unique a possible. Brand health is built, and maintained by offering a set ofdifferentiating promises to consumers. And by delivering those promises to leverage value.For measuring differentiation of Dove, the following questions were asked.Respondents were asked to identify the brands from the taglines mentioned. This has beentaken as differentiation, because, if a consumer can identify the tagline of a particularbrand, it means that the particular brand is differentiated in the consumer’s mind. In this,the brand being identified the maximum number of times would get the highest marks andthe remaining would follow accordingly.Another question was where the respondent, had to identify, if for a particular brand, thereis another brand quite similar in offerings. The brand, for which maximum number ofrespondents felt there are not many similar offerings, would get maximum points.In another question on differentiation, we laid down the various characteristics of personalcare products. The characteristics listed were- less skin/eye irritation, fragrance, andmoisturizing, gentle and less chemicals. These are important characteristics of a personalcare product. These characteristics differentiate one brand from another.The results of the survey are - The figure indicates points. Brand Differentiation Questions Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay Unique 9 28 12 22 33 Characteristics 538 742 657 762 783 Sub total 547 770 669 784 816 Percentiles 20 60 40 80 100
Brand Differentiation 100 80 60 40 20 Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier OlayOlay is highest on differentiation. According, to this Olay has been rated highest incharacteristics such as gentle but Garnier has been rated the highest in less skin/eyeirritation, Garnier. Characteristics Sunsilk Olay Garnier Pantene Dove less skin/eye irritation 121 158 167 142 147 Fragrance 91 171 174 138 118 moisturizing 66 151 145 122 189 gentle 159 185 161 130 141 less chemicals 101 118 115 125 147 sum 538 783 762 657 742 20 80 60 40 100The survey even tried to understand how the respondents perceive the price of differentbrands. Price is an important differentiator; therefore, it is important to see how consumersperceive the various prices. Characteristics Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay Unaffordable 0 0 0 0 18 Expensive but affordable 12 15 10 24 17 Value for money 21 27 23 16 12 Inexpensive 14 5 14 7 0The result clearly shows that majority believes that Dove is a brand which is a value formoney.
RelevanceRelevance is the actual and perceived importance of the brand to a large consumer marketsegment. This gauges the personal appropriateness of a brand to consumers and is stronglytied to household penetration (the percentage of households that purchase the brand).For measuring the relevance of Dove, the following questions were asked:-The respondents were asked the brands they would like to associate with. If a consumerwould want to associate with a brand, then the brand would be relevant for the consumer.In another question, the respondents were asked a series of questions on why they wouldpurchase a brand. The respondents were asked the following questions:-Characteristics Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier OlayValue for moneyComplete personal careQualitySmellLess harmful chemicalsSatisfy my needs than othersThe results of the survey are- Brand Relevance Questions Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay Associate 5 23 5 3 11 Purchase 26 94 25 48 30 Sub- total 31 117 30 51 41 Percentile 40 100 20 80 60 Brand Relevance 100 80 60 40 20 Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay
From the above survey we can see that Dove is the highest in relevance. This could bebecause people could associate more with the brand. Also Dove is a popular brand, usedfrom quite long now. It is a quality product at expensive but affordable rate.Moreover, it has wide variety of variants to cater to different consumer preferences. Theproduct is relevant among wide masses because of its quality and constant innovation. Brand Relevance dove is a dove is a dove is not a dove is 1/4th premium personal feminine moustiring brand care brand brand Series1 8 51 -25 30Respondents strongly agree to the fact that dove is a personal care brand.Another question we asked the respondents was would they recommend Dove to someoneand the responses are as follows:- yes no 19% 81%
Brand StrengthDifferentiation and relevance combine to determine brand strength. They point to thebrand’s future value. Brand Strength 100 60 Brand Brand relevance Differentiation
2. Presentation of findings andconclusion for laddering methodThe responses were received from the respondents was analysed to form an A-C-V chainwhere A stands for attributes C stands for consequences and V stands for values. The ACV’Sare organized in the following table where similar values, attributes and consequences havebeen grouped together. These helped us reach a definitive conclusion telling us about theunderlying consumer motivations behind buying the product, brand health and how theproduct makes the consumer feel.SNO. ATTRIBUTES SUB-ATTRIBUTES1 Fragrance2 Moisturize Convenient, saves time and energy3 Colour White, green and is associated with peace4 Refreshing5 Value for money product Not required to use moisturizer so saves money6 Gentle to skin7. No harmful chemicals8. Packaging Eye catching ,soothing due to liberal usage of white and green (dove a symbol of peace)SNO. CONSEQUENCES9 Wrinkling Moisturizes skin and hydrates it-improper hydration leads to wrinkling10 Feel good factor11 Confidence Makes you stand out in the crowd12 Soft skin Baby soft feel, smooth texture13 Spurs performance feels more self assured Levels14 Better social life Magnetizes people15 Fair skin16 Convenience Less time taking, more like a daily chore
SNO. VALUES17 Sense of achievement18 Higher self esteem19 Security20 Self-assuredThe serial numbers of the ACVs from the table were taken as the codes for further analysis.The ACVs were transformed to the following.
Self assured Security Sense of Peace of achievement mind Confidence Better social Fair skin Spurs life performance levelFeel good Wrinkling Healthy skinfactor Moisturizer Colour Fragrance Refreshing No harmful Value for Gentle to skin chemicals money
One of the core values was sense of security where the respondents felt cared for by others which was followed by self –assurance where the respondents appreciated themselves for what they were and felt confident about their presence. This was followed by peace of mind which arose from the fact that money was well spent and also was a resultant of better social life. Last but not the least was a sense of achievement where the respondents felt they performed better and more efficiently which lead to their appraisal and promotions which filled them with a sense of pride and achievement. The consequence which mattered the most was confidence and a spur in the performance levels both of which are a function each other. It also leads to a feel good factor. Less wrinkling was a surprise find where many respondents felt that since the skin remains hydrated the chances of early wrinkles are minimised. Moreover the lack of harmful chemicals was an important attribute as many people thought that in today’s world looking good is very important and large number of face washes, serums, cleansers were available in the market but they are mostly harsh to skin as they contain various harmful chemicals but Dove proves to be a good buy as its gentle to the skin and lacks harmful chemicals and this gives them peace of mind where they don’t have to compromise on the health of the skin to look good. The litmus test ad seemed to be etched in the respondents mind. Convenience was also rated high on the ladder as people had a busy schedule and since Dove acts as a moisturizer people don’t have to use a moisturizing lotion separately which saves time, money and bother and washing one’s face with Dove becomes a daily chore and one does not have to take out time to do it .So it’s a complete skin care solution and hence respondents found it value for money inspite of being expensive in comparison to the other soaps. The respondents also stressed on the refreshing quality of the product and its light fragrance lifted their moods and made them feel more agreeable and confident about themselves .They felt more agreeable, behaved better and carried with themselves a positive aura which made their social life scintillating which gave them peace of mind and also boosted their productivity. They felt more secure which is a function of being liked accepted and a sense of belongingness prevailed. Packaging elevated their mood and senses and soothed their eyes as the colours white and green represent tranquillity.
Conclusion1) SegmentationLadder frequency for attribute value linkageAttribute VALUES SOCIAL PERSONAL Security Sense of Total Peace of Self Total achievement mind AssuredFragrance 0 0 0 0 1 1Moisturizer 0 0 0 0 0 0Colour 0 0 0 0 0 0Refreshing 0 1 1 1 2 3Value for 1 1 2 1 0 1moneyGentle 0 0 0 0 0 0No harmful 0 1 1 1 0 1chemicalsPackaging 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 6The four values are classified into higher level values as follows:-SOCIAL VALUESIs associated with how a person is accepted in his peer group and his standing in the society.SecurityThis is a function of how well accepted a person is in a group. Belongingness fills a personwith a sense of security. Social acceptance is a function of a variety of factors amongstwhich ability to get along with others which comes from being agreeable and confidenceranks very high. Moreover a pleasant countenance helps matters. One feels sung and cosywhen cared by others which lead to increase in productivity.
Sense of achievementThis is a social value .When we see ourselves better off than others monetarily we feel goodand we feel we have achieved in life it is a boost to our self esteem.Personal valuesIs associated with being comfortable of oneself and accepting oneself for what they are.They are related to one’s expectations of oneself.Peace of mindWe feel good about ourselves and when we are appreciated by others we attain peace ofmind. We feel we could meet the standards we had set for us which gives us peace of mind.Self assuredWhen we feel more confident and beautiful we are more assured of our presence whichcomes from a having a better image of oneself in one’s eyes as well as eyes of others.From the ladder frequencies for attribute- value linkage, the results are as follows:Social- 4 respondents i.e. 40% respondentsPersonal- 6 respondents i.e. 60% respondentsThus we can conclude that this brand is more concerned with people for whom personalvalues play a very important role.2) Developing Advertising Strategy:Means- Ends Conceptualisation of Components of Advertising Strategy:Driving forceThe brand needs to orient itself more towards personal values like peace of mind and selfassurance. It MUST make people feel good about them and not crave for an unattainablehourglass figure and looks. It should aim at accepting oneself the way one is. Theadvertisement should aim at how a person should aim at accepting oneself the way he isand making him realise that “self esteem “is very essential as you can’t be accepted by thesociety when you don’t accept yourself for the person you are.
Leverage point Self assurance or self esteem should be reinforced as that is the value to which mostrespondents connect.Excecutional frameworkSince the product is perceived to be a value for money product the ads should stress as howthe products are multipurpose .For example the soap acts as both a moisturizer and acleanser without the harmful properties of soap. Hence the multipurpose use of theproducts should be reinforced.Consumer benefitThe main consumer benefit as derived from our research is the feel good factor which isagain a combination of various factors like confidence, better social life, healthy and lesswrinkly skin. But confidence is a clear winner and the ad should stress upon the boost inconfidence levels when Dove is used.Message elements What emerges from the Hierarchical Value Model is the importance of confidence in thefour major values-Self assurance, peace of mind, sense of achievement and security. Theproduct attributes which leads to the consequence of Confidence are gentleness, absence ofharmful chemicals and moisturising property. These product attributes need to behighlighted in the advertisements to induce the need for confidence among the viewers.
AnnexureQuestionnaire 1. Is brand important for you when it comes to personal care product? Yes No 2. Can you identify the logo of the brands? 3. Can you identify the taglines of the brands? Love the skin you are in Take care Go fresh Unforgettable hair Shine. I believe I can 4. Can you identify the celebrities involved with the brands? Shilpa Shetty Sonam Kapoor Kajol Priyanka Chopra Geneila D-Souza 5. Name five brands which come to your mind when you think of soap? 6. Which brand would you associate yourself with? Sunsilk Pantene Dove Olay Garnier 7. Which brand fulfils its promise the most? Sunsilk Pantene Dove Olay Garnier 8. Which brand do you trust the most? Sunsilk Pantene Dove Olay
Garnier 9. Do you think any brand gives the same offerings as your brand? Yes No 10. Rate the following on a scale of 1-5(5 being the highest and 1 lowest)? Characteristics Sunsilk Olay Garnier Pantene Dove less skin/eye irritation Fragrance moisturizing gentle less chemicals sum 11. How would you rate the price of these brands compared to other brand? Characteristics Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier Olay Unaffordable Expensive but affordable Value for money Inexpensive 12. Can you tell me the reasons why you would purchase a brand?Characteristics Sunsilk Dove Pantene Garnier OlayValue for moneyComplete personal careQualitySmellLess harmful chemicalsSatisfy my needs than others 13. Is Dove a premium brand? Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree14. Is Dove a personal care brand? Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree
15. Is Dove not a feminine brand? Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 16. Is Dove a 1/4th moisturizing brand? Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 17. Will you recommend Dove to someone? Yes No