BUSINESS MAHARAJASbyGita PiramalA freelance journalist with a Ph.D. in business history, GitaPiramal isthe author of the best-selling Business Legends and the co-author of apioneering work on business history, Indias Industrialists. She hasalso contributed to the seminal volume Business and Politics in India-AHistorical Perspective, edited by Dr. Dwijendra Tripathi and publishedby the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. She has been writingand commenting on the corporate sector for over eighteen years forleading Indian and international newspapers such as the UKs FinancialTimes and Economic Times.Piramal has been involved in the making of television programmes onIndian business for the BBC and for Plus Channel.She is married to industrialist Dilip G. Piramal and they have twodaughters, Aparna and Radhika. Piramal divides her time between Mumbaiand London.
Penguin Books India (P) Ltd." II Community Centre, Panchshccl Park,New Delhi 110 017. India Penguin Books Ltd." 27 Wrights Lane,LondonW8 5TZ, UKPenguin Putnam Inc." 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014, USAPenguin Books Australia Ltd." Ringwood, Victoria, AustraliaPenguin Books Canada Ltd." 10 Alcorn Avenue, Suite 300, Toronto,Ontario M4V 3B2. Canada Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd." Cnr Rosedale andAirborne Roads, Albany, Auckland. New ZealandFirst published in Viking by Penguin Books India (P) Ltd. 1996 Firstpublished by Penguin Books India (P) Ltd. 1997Copyright Gita Pirama11996All rights reservedTypeset in Times by Digital Technologies and Printing Solutions, NewDelhiThis book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way oftrade or otherwise. be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwisecirculated without the publishers prior written consent in any form ofbinding or cover other than that in which it is published and without asimilar condition including this condition being imposed on thesubsequent purchaser and without limiting the rights under copyrightreserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, storedin or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form orby any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyrightowner and the above mentioned publisher of this book.
AcknowledgementsThe maharajas for their timeDilip for his confidence in meKhozem Merchant, Nishit Kotecha, Subniv Babuta and Sailesh Kottary fortheir suggestionsDavid Davidar for his encouragementKrishan Chopra for his constructive criticism Sindhu Sabale for my databank my parents for their supportHarsh Goenka for the title
ContentsIntroduction ixDhirubhai Ambani 1Rahul Kumar Bajaj 85Aditya Vikram Birla 135Rama Prasad Goenka 211Brij Mohan Khaitan 261Bharat and Vijay Shah 313Ratan Tata 363Appendix 408A Note on Sources 411Select Bibliography 415Index 462
IntroductionLike the territorial rajas of the past, businessmen today rule vastempires, maintain a watchful eye inside and outside their boundaries,and protect their turf against invaders. The eight featured here areamong Indias most powerful men. Between them, they control sales ofroughly Rs 550bn through over 500 companies and directly employ atleast 650,000 people. Switch on a light, sip a cup of tea, have ashave, listen to music, drive to work, see a movie, snuggle into apillow--and youll find yourself using their products through the dayand into the night.They are a study in contrasts. Their businesses are distinct andvaried. Some are highly educated, others are college drop-outs. Someare inheritors, others self-made. Some topped their chosen field intheir thirties, others didnt approach the starting line until theirfifties. Some dominate a particular business, others control more thanone industry. What they do,. what they think, how they react impactsthe entire economy, not just their customers, shareholders, employees,and bank managers. So how do they think? How do they conduct theirbusinesses, arrive at complex investment decisions involving*Sums have mostly been expressed in millkm,lkm. The equivalents in ofiakh/crore arc: ten lakhs: one million; ten million: one crc; 100 cro:of billion(1,000 million).
x / Business Maharajas billions of rupees, or hire and fire theexecutives who manage their dominions?For me, the challenge has always been to find out why a company behavesthe way it does, to understand the people and the compulsions behindbusiness events. Inevitably, therefore, this is a book about businesspersonalities. Management gurus love to talk about strategy andstrategic decisions, but the. more I learn about business, the moreIm convinced that management decisions are based on the personalexperiences, aims and vision of one person. Usually its the head of abusiness house or the chairman of a company, but sometimes crucialdecisions can be taken by unexpected people, as I found to my surprisewhile researching this book.I learnt, for example, that the Williamson Magor groups Rs 2.9bndecision to acquire Union Carbide India was not taken by blue-ribboneddirectors in its boardroom at 4 Mangoe Lane but in the tranquil drawingroom of Shanti Khaitan. In 1994, every financial journal covered thesale, billed as the biggest takeover in Indian corporate history.Discussing the deal with the Khaitans, I found that their bid was basednot so much on the advice of bean counters but on human factors.Worried that their son Deepak was spending too much time in theirstable of three hundred horses and not enough in his garage ofengineering companies, Shanti persuaded her husband, Brij Mohan, tomake an offer for the famous battery maker. Deepak needed to settledown, and she was convinced that a big company like Union Carbide wouldbe just the right ticket.At one time, Bhiki Shah was a far more worried mother than Shanti. Inthe late 70s,her younger son Vijay had established a tiny office and:a state-of-the-art factory at Saphadz, outside Tel Aviv. It did sowell that in 1981 it received the Israeli governments highest exportaward and the
Business Maharajas / xi next year, sales surged from $2m to $21m.Persuaded that the future for him lay in Israel, Vijay--who speaksfluent Hebrew--wanted to settle there but Bhiki protested. "My motherused to hear about bomb scares an dall those things on television. Sowe thought we hhd better settle down in Antwerp," says Vijay. Therebyhe altered the course of B. Vija3kumar & Company.I doubt if theres a more fascinating businessman than DhirubhaiAmbani. As a petrol station attendant, he used to dream of heading ahuge company, maybe a global multinational like his first and onlyemployer, Burmah Shelll All teenagers dream but how many have theability and doggedness to turn fantasy into reality? Ambani founded abrash, upstart company which challenged the established business housesand their way of conducting business. He fought for and seized paperliscence, converting them into large textile mills and hugepetrochemical complexes.Through the process of building Reliance Industries into a corporatebehemoth, he rewrote management theories, fought with Indias mostfearsome newspaper, made friends with prime mitaisters, became the onlybusinessman to be lampooned as often as Rajiv Gandhi. He nailed hisnameplate onto an office door in 1966: From next to nothing, within twodecades, sales had ballooned to Rs 9bn, making Reliance one of Indiastop ten companies, but Ambani wasnt satisfied. Sitting at his deskone day in 1984, he drew up a flow chart. If he built such-and-suchfactory, added a division here and a unit there, ten years down theroad, Reliance could become a Rs 80bn company. Sceptics laughed whenhe announced his plans, but he proved them wrong. In 1995, salesnudged Rs 78bn. Some say Ambani is an acronym for ambition and money.Its probably true.In the 80s, Reliance grew at an astonishing 1,100 per cent,
swith sales moving up from Rs 2bn to Rs 18.4bn, but it wasnt Indiasfastest growing company. Its expansion trailed behind Bajaj Autosincredible growth rate of 1,852 per cent. Under Rahul Bajaj, thePune-based scooter companys sales swelled from Rs 519m to Rs 18.5bnduring the same decade. Both Reliance and Bajaj Auto are lean andowner-driven corporations, yet in terms of character, style,background----every parameter that countsmthere couldnt be two moredissimilar chairmen than Dhirubhai Ambani and Rahul Bajaj.Ambani is a first generation entrepreneur, the Bajajs were rich longbefore Ambani was born. Ambani hustled in Bombays teeming marketsselling yarn and later fabrics. Bajaj didnt have to hustlemthere werelong queues of people outside his airconditioned office patientlywaiting to be allotted scooters. Ambani Cultivated political contacts,Bajaj was born into a family of patriots. Mahatma Gandhi referred toRahuls grandfather as his fifth son; Rahuls father was a Congressmember of Parliament. Yet the government raided Rahul Bajaj twice,stalled his repeated applications to build new factories and expandproduction, and wouldnt let him diversify. In 1987 he wanted to buyinto Ashok Leyland, a truck maker, but to clinch the deal, he neededdollars. The government wouldnt exchange his rupees and he lost theopportunity. Despite the difficult conditions he worked under, Bajajestablished Bajaj Auto as one of Indias rare world-classorganizations.The late Aditya Birla came from a family with as rich a politicallegacy as Rahul Bajaj. Birla had an appetite as voracious or morem ifthats possible--for empire-building as Dhirubhai Ambani. To feed it,Birla built 2.3 factories annually, on time and within budget, forthirty consecutive years. His corporate feats were so awesome thatevery
s / xiii entrepreneur worth his red ledger and Excel spreadsheetwanted to know how Aditya Birla ran his operations. How could he packin so much in such a short time? Could Birlas trade secicts betaught and replicated? Yet at the end of the day, his wife of thirtyyeas wondered: "He used to say "I do this for getting more power", butI dont think that was the case because he never made use of thatpower. So what good was". Like Ambani and Bajaj, Aditya Birla was a green field man,preferring to build his own companies rather than buy what others haderected. Once they were up and running, he would guard them jealously,fending off marauders. Some of the attackers were his own cousins,which made the battles within the Birla clan even more exciting forthose watching from the sidelines.In terms of sheer drama, theres little to beat takeovers and buy-outs.Thats why acquisition stories are couched in military terminology.Cloak-and-dagger secrecy is what makes Rama Prasad Goenka, Indiasbuy-out specialist, so interesting. Whos selling and at what price,whos buying and at what price? Much can go wrong in deals wherepolitical strings have to be pulled and mega bucks change hands, butGoenka usually gets what he wants without too many glitches. Therewere only a few ripples when he silently picked up Ceat, a tyre maker,and later CESC, a power generator and distributor. In contrast, reamsof newsprint forced Dhirubhai Ambani to abort his bid for Larsen &Toubro.The first company Goenka bought was the Calcutta-based Duncan Brothers.His father had managed to wrangle him a job in the prestigious managingagency firm as a covenanted assistant on the princely salary of Rs 350per month, but within a week RP tendered his resignation in protestagainst the racism rampant in the Scottish firm. The Raj was at itspinnacle, it was
sRPs first job, and his father was furious. RP was forced to swallowhis pride and return--which made the acquisition all the sweeter whenit came through in 1963. A dozen buy outs later, Goenka entered thetop twenty league but he would become a cover boy only in 1989 when heshot up the corporate ladder to fourth place from thirteenth.One of Goenkas closest friends is Briju Babu, the tea baron. Once,when he was shopping in London, a bomb hurled Khaitan twenty yards fromthe doorway of Harrods. Nineteen people died. He survived. BrijMohan Khaitan survived also the riots of pre-Independence Calcutta whenMahatma Gandhi prayed nightly for peace in the has tis of a citydescribed as a hell-hole. He survived too the Naxalite movement,staying on in Calcutta when other Marwaris abandoned the city for NewDelhi and Bombay. Khaitan is the only businessman in this book whoemploys a private army. It patrols his tea gardens day and night.Bodyguards and guns are a way of life for this intensely private anddeeply religious man. He doesnt like them, but he doesnt have achoice. How else will he deal with terrorist groups such as ULFA andBodo militants in Assam? After every murder, Khaitan has to keep highnot only his own morale but also that of those who depend on him. Thelife of this tea maharaja provides an insight into a shadowy world farremoved from glossily printed profit and loss statements, the CalcuttaStock Exchange and high profile tea auctions.The world of diamonds is almost as shadowy and dangerous as that of thetea gardens. Security cameras unblinkingly eye visitors to the officesof Bharat and Vijay Shah, and armed guards swing their firearmswarningly in front of massive vaults housing millions of rupees worthof glittering carbon. Its a far cry from the clever videos ofgorgeous women clad in little more than a necklace and earrings.
s / xvBharat and Vijay, both college drop-outs, started from scratch likeDhirubhai Ambani, a fellow Gujarati. In ten years, the brothers builta Rs 35bn international empire selling an Indian product which isglobally competitive. To get to where they are they had to break thehold of a group of Hasidic Jews, identifiable in diamond markets bytheir long flapping black overcoats, curly forelocks and wide-brimmeddark wool hats. The tentacles of this trade used to stretch from DeBeers legendary mines in South Africa and Australia to the auctionrooms of New York and Tel Aviv, Antwerp and London. The Shahs andother Palanpuri Jains brought the business to Surat and Bombay, wherenimble diamond cutters cut and polish tiny brown stones, turning drossinto gold. How did they do it?To make the Tata group globally competitive is one of the prioritiesRatan Tata, the head of Indias biggest business house, has set forhimself. The group is at a watershed in its 125-year-old history andTata knows he has to take urgent steps to prevent the group fromplummeting into terminal decline. Its hard being a Tara. The surnamedoesnt permit failure and the early years of his business career weredistinguished more by losses than profits. In the five years sincehes been in the addle, Tara has come a long way. Under hisleadership, Telco and Tisco, the groups two biggest companies whichbetween them contribute over half the groups sales and profits, areperforming better than they have ever done before. The othereighty-two companies are being spruced up and with every littleimprovement, Tata brings the group closer to his goal of living intodays world.Restructuring, in fact, is a recurring theme in all seven of thisbooks chapters, reflecting the concern of these businessmen about thefuture. The end of the Licence Raj with its corollary of greaterindustrial opportunity, stiffer competition from domestic andinternational rivals, the financial revolution, the lure of foreignmarkets, the shaky promise of globalization, and various aspects of theliberalization programme have generated considerable debate about thedirection of change and how Indian industry should rise to meet thesechallenges. Virtually all eight businessmen profiled here have eitheralready initiated or are about to initiate far-reaching changes intheir organizations, and an attempt has been made to outline their
strategies and to explain the rationale behind the individualresponses.Business Maharajas doesnt limit itself to the top five or ten businesshouses but profiles Indias most fascinating tycoons. How were theychosen? One guiding principle used was to look both into the past andthe future in order :o make a selection. They had to be men whocontrolled business empires which were established in the twentiethcentury and which will flourish in the twenty-first century. Theresno point picking shooting stars: yesterdays heroes shouldnt turn outto be tomorrows nonentities..There are many superstars who are equally--if not more--interesting,such as Vijay Mallya, the jet-setting liquor king, or Subhash Chandraof Zee TV. Theres a whole new crop of steel tycoons s ch as theRuias, the Mittals and the Jindals, besides a band of electronicproducts magnates led by Venugopal Dhoot of Videocon, the Mirchandanibrothers of Onida and T.P.G. Nambiar of BPL. India is becoming a majorpharmaceutical player in world markets because of the efforts of menlike Bhai Mohan Singh of Ranbaxy. These men require a book tothemselves, a book which doesnt look both at the past and the futureas does this one.Another guiding principle used in the selection was the concept ofterritorial dominance. The profiled businessmen had to be leaders intheir chosen area of activity. B.M. Khaitan grows 65m kg of teaannually, which translates into roughly
s / xvii50 per cent of the Indian market and five per cent of global teaproduction. According to De Beers, the South African diamond giant,Bharat and Vijay Shah are the worlds biggest diamantaires, annuallycutting, polishing and marketing several billion diamonds. Producingover a million vehicles a year, Rahul Bajaj has built the worldsfourth largest two-wheeler company in western India. For a moment, inhistory, R.P. Goenka controlled a massive 35 per cent of Indias totaltyre production, though he lost this position and is now in the processof carving out a place for himself in the power sector. Before histragic death at an early age, Aditya Birla had established himself asthe worlds leading producer of viscose staple fibre and palm oil, thethird largest producer of insulators and the sixth largest of carbonblack. Within India, he was the largest producer of cement, rayonfilament yarn, flax and caustic soda. From his high-rise office inBombay, Dhirubhai Ambani dominates textiles and petrochemicals anddreams of becoming Indias Arco, while Ratan Tara heads Indias biggestbusiness house and is the number one truck and private sector steelmaker.And what about men like Kistian L. Chugh of ITC or Sushim M. Datta ofUnilever? Surely their lives and achievements are quite asextraordinary as those of Ratan Tata or Aditya Birla? Dont theseoutstanding chieftains rule huge corporate empires? Yes, but the thirdguiding principle of this volume is a focus not on the ranks ofprofessional managers but on picking the best talent from familybusinesses.After so many years of research on entrepreneurship, many ask whether Ihave gleaned any ideas on why some people are winners and others arelosers. Can the elements of success be identified? Im as puzzledtoday as the day I started out fifteen years ago.Of the seven profiles drawn in these pages, three are
s rags-to-riches stories (Ambani, Khaitan, And the two Shah brothers)and three are about inheritors who have added to their legacies (Birla,Bajaj, and Goenka). As a chairman whos been less than five years inthe hot seat, the jurys still out where Tata is concerned.Only two hold postgraduate degrees: Bajaj is an MBA from the HarvardBusiness School and Goenka is an MA from Calcutta University. Birlastudied at Bostons prestigious MIT and Tata graduated from the equallyfamous Cornell, but the matriculate Ambani rolled up his sleeves andgot a job at seventeen, Vijay Shah dropped out of the London School ofEconomics when his father died, and Khaitan completed his undergraduatestudies in an undistinguished morning college.In building theirjagirs, each has developed a unique set of tenetswhich stems from his character, background and experiences. Inevitablythe corporate culture of the companies they head is grounded in thesetenets and reflects the personalities of their chiefs.Take, for example, the measured growth of Grasim and Hindalco. In histwenties, soon after taking over the reins of Indian Rayon, the youngBirla discovered that profitability improved dramatically if he ensuredthat the small spinning mill ran to rated capacity and if he keptadding new machinery in driblets. This strategy would become theessence of Birlas corporate philosophy. "To keep on modernizing,updating, debottlenecking, cost cutting, increasing production(including capacities) by technological improvements, this is what weenjoy. Running a plant day in and day out in the same manner gives oneno joy. The basic aim of technological advance should be to reduce thecost of productionbnot technology for technologys sake," he onceexplained. Today his factories are the cheapest per unit manufacturersof their given products.
s xixAmbanis corporate attitude is radically different from that of Birla.Instead of creating a safe capacity based on conservative demandprojections, Ambani planned huge factories which from the beginningwould be world-scale in capacity, cost and quality standards---ven iflocal demand didnt match or hadnt yet reached such volumes. Thus,for example, when he decided to manufacture polyester staple fibre in1984, he didnt plan a medium size unit with the option to expand ifthe company did well. On the contrary, when local PSF production was37,000 tpa and another 10,000 tonnes was being imported, Relianceapplied for a licence of 45,000 tonnes, i.e. the total currentproduction or 4.5 times the current import, knowing full well that halfa dozen PSF licences, albeit smaller ones, had been awarded to otherindustrialists. Dhirubhai once said, "I consider myself a pathfinder.I have been excavating the jungle and making the road for others towalk. I like to be the first in everything I do. Making money doesnot excite me, though I have to make it for my shareholders. Whatexcites me is achievement. I could never do a normal job. In thisroom, extraordinary things must happen." Birla was cut from quite adifferent cloth.If theres little in common between Ambani and Birla about the road tosuccess, the viewpoints of Bajaj and Tara are even more divergent.Both like to be hands-on managers, well-informed about nitty-grittydetails of their companies, but the similarities end there. Theirattitude towards partners and strategic alliances symbolizes thepolarity between the two tall, sophisticated, American-educated headsof giant engineering concerns. Bajaj is a loner but Tara has over halfa dozen joint ventures.Defending his positioh, Bajaj once said, "I do not want in my owncountry to share power, authority making and ownership with aforeigner. I have nothing against foreigners.
sThat is not the point. But General Motors does not have foreignequity. Nor does Sorry or IBM. The weak do." Tata, on the otherhand, feels that theres nothing to be lost and much to be gained byjoining up with others. "Were too concerned about our individualsovereignty whereas we should be looking at alliances and aggregationof companies as it so often happens abroad. Wh.ere partnerships arebased on human chemistry and there is a business case, then the twopartners really begin to work as one."Each of the eight businessmen featured in Business Maharajas has hackedan individual path to his personal throne. As the profiles reveal, notwo routes resemble each other. Yet, tangled in the disparities, are afew skeins which are common to each.All eight follow two fundamental and simple management rules. Hiregood people, treat them well and delegate responsibility. Secondly,when building factories, try to get them up and running as quickly aspossible.All eight share three common characteristics: they are highly focused,they possess a high level of energy, and they are obsessed. Totallycommitted to their ambitions, they work relentless hours. You couldcall them stubborn, even bullheaded, and once an idea has germinated intheir mind, they wont give it up easily.Indubitably, all eight are bright and talented. As such, one wouldexpect them to shine in virtually any economy. A suitable backgroundand appropriate training are clearly major advantages, but highachievers are usually good at most tasks they take up, even thoseunrelated to business. However, all eight partly owe their remarkablesuccess to two external factors, two elements totally outside theircontrol, and completely unconnected to their personal abilities.However talented, a businessman may still not achieve his individual
s / xxi pinnacle unless these two outside forces come to his aid. Asfar as these men are concerned, each at some point had a mentor whohelped kick him upstairs. And at the first turning point in each oftheir careers, a piece of luck has come their way. In hindsight, oftenthe lucky event seems trifling, of no major significance, but had itnot been there, had they missed seeing opportunity and building on it,none of them would have got the jump-start enabling them to draw aheadof the crowd.Without J.R.D. Tatas help, Ratan couldnt have become head of the TaraGroup, and if his chief rival to the post, Russi Mody, had not given anunguarded interview to the Hindu, Mody and not Ratan might today berestructuring the Rs 240bn group. While strolling through AntwerpsKring, had Monty Charles, a director of the London-based DiamondTradingCompany, not spotted the potential in young Vijay Shah, the young Shahbrothers might not today be the worlds carat czars, and if the Shahshadnt been offered diamond cutting factories in Surat at fire-saleprices in the 70s, they might not have been able to establish Indiasbiggest privately held empire. In Calcutta, soon after the collapse ofthe British Raj, there were hundreds of budding tea planters but it washis friendship with Richard Magor which allowed Khaitan to become aburra sahib while other Marwari ban ias remained small-time suppliers.And it was a fluke that a slight connection with John Guthrie led toKhaitans acquisition of McLeod Russell, a purchase which overnightmade him Indias leading tea producer.While writing this book, have I been subjective? Yes, I have. I dontsee how any biography can be objective. Objectivity can, in fact, becounterproductive. For one, its impossible to be totally detached,impartial and completely well-informed. Secondly, how much detailshould be included? How big should a biography be before it becomes
s useful? is it thirty pages or three hundred? Business Maharajastries to capture snapshots of critical or illustrative episodes in theaction-packed careers of eight extremely busy people. It doesnt claimto be definitive or a Ph.D. thesis.G.D. Birla, no mean writer himself, used to say that no Indian canwrite biography. Be that as it may, there is so much that is ofinterest in the lives of these maharajas that one was still temptedto try.
The Bombay Stock ExchangeApril 30, 1982hirajlal Hirachand Ambani became famous on the afternoon of April 30,1982. He had no inkling when he woke up that morning that in thefuture he would be known as Indias stock market messiah. The onlyemotion he felt that hot summer morning, as the mercury crossed the 33C mark, was wrath. For the past six weeks, a syndicate of stockbrokershad been hammering his companys shares on the Bombay Stock Exchange,and he didnt like it.April 30 was a Friday, the day he could vent his anger, take hisrevenge. On the BSE, alternate Fridays are settlement days when alltransactions which have taken place the previous fortnight are cleared.Sellers deliver shares to buyers, buyers accept delivery, or eitherparty asks for the transaction to be postponed to the next clearanceday after paying bad la or compensation for the delay. This was one ofthe settlement Fridays. It would go down in the BSEs history as a dayof total chaos.Actually, the stage for this drama was set a few days earlier, on March18, when a selling hysteria shocked the BSE. In twenty-five minutes ofpanic, starting at 1.35. p.m." the price of blue-chips like Centuryand Tisco crashed by ten per cent. They fell like dominoes on the backof Ambanis RelianceTextile Industries which fell from Rs 131 to Rs 121 as 350,000 of itsshares hit the market.The free fall had been engineered by a Calcutta-based bear synd|cateled by a Marwari industrialist, perhaps a member of the powerful Birlaclan. Using the technique of short selling--where a speculatorbelieves that prices. will fall, sells shares he doesnt have, andcovers the sale by buying them at lower prices laterwthe bear syndicatesold 1.1 million Reliance shares worth over Rs 160m. They planned tolater pick up these same shares very cheaply and thereby make a tidyprofit on the difference. For the plan to succeed, it was importantthat there should be no big buyers mopping up the stock as it was beingsold. The rich bears discounted the promoter of the company they were
targeting. It was unlikely that Ambani, then a modest yarn trader andbudding industrialist, would have the cash to beat off the attack.The Marwari and his syndicate badly misjudged their victim. The momentthey unloaded Reliances shares on March 18, Ambani brokers steppedinto action, collared every share in sight anO pushed the price to Rs125 before the day was out. They continued buying the next day, andthe next, forcing the scrip to rise giddily. In India, technicallymanagements cannot buy their own companies shares, so a brand neworganization, the "Friends of Reliance Association, emerged whichbought 857,000 of the bears 1.1 million shares.Instead of being pushed around, Ambani neatly turned the tables on theMarwari. In an obvious attempt to teach the bear syndicate ales sonfor battering at his share price, Ambani delivered the coup de grace onthat fateful Friday by demanding delivery. Meticulously knowledgeableabout every aspect of his business, Ambani knew that the sellerscouldnt possibly have the shares they had sold. Caught with theirpants down, the panic-stricken bears bid for every Reliance share insight in order to fulfill their commitments. It wasnt enough and thebear syndicate was forced to ask for time to deliver the .... elusiveshares. Ambanis brokers refused any postponement of the deal exceptat a staggering Rs 50 bad la charge.In the bedlam that followed, the BSE had to be shut down for three dayswhile the exchange authorities tried to bring about a compromisebetween the unyielding bull (Ambani) and the flustered bears. Once itbecame clear that no understanding could be reached, the panic buyingbegan in earnest. The Reliance price skyrocketed as the syndicatescoured stock markets across the country. By May 10, the gap betweensales and availability was almost covered and the crisis was over.The crisis created alegend out of Ambani but he did not become a stockmarket messiah because the BSE had to be closed on his account norbecause he had humbled the bears. Undoubtedly these feats of corporatevalour were awesome, but he would in time become a cult figure not forwhat he did, but because of what he stood form the ordinaryshareholder.Ambani, known better as Dhirubhai, was the first Indian industrialistto appreciate the ordinary investor and his needs. Asked once what wasthe secret of his success, he answered: "One must have ambition and one
must understand the minds .. of men." His support for the smallshareholder stemmed from personal experience. One, he knew what it waslike to be poor. And secondly, banks had often turned him away when hebadly needed money to build his factories. So he turned for support tothe only other option he had: the public. Mobilizing funds directlyfrom small investors was a major departure from normal practice at thetime. Most businesses raise resources for capital investment fromstate-owned financial institutions such as the IDBI or 1CICI. "Ambani realized that in order to seduce the public into investing inhis schemes, he had to offer them something above and beyond what theywere already used to getting. And this was the steady appreciation oftheir shareholding. Until he came on the scene, managements rarelybothered about the price of their companys shares. The business of acompany was to earn profit and declare dividends, not to dabble on thestock markets, keeping track of share prices and supporting a scripwhenever it wobbled. In contrast, Ambani believed that management hada responsibility towards its shareholders and should play an activerole in looking after their interest. The most generous of dividendscould not make a shareholder rich, but capital appreciation of hisshares could, he propounded.This was an alien concept, an idea Ambani picked up from the West. Ittook him almost half a decade to propagate this philosophy but once ittook root, it changed the entire mindset of corporate India and its wayof doing business.At the time, Ambani didnt realize that he had mounted a treadmill fromwhich he would never be able to step off. Over the next few years,this treadmill sped ever faster, constantly threatening to whirl out ofcontrol. In order to retain the publics support, Dhirubhai had toensure that the price of Reliance shares kept appreciating, month aftermonth, year after year. As long as he kept moving, money poured in.He found he could tap the capital markets for bigger and biggeramounts. His popularity became so great that people rushed to handtheir savings over to him. Other businessmens issues might flop, butnot his.Ambani coined the term the mega issue. Each year he beat his ownrecord. With the exception of 1977 (when Reliance went public),traditionally the honour of the years largest issue goes to Reliance.Up to 1995, Ambani has mobilized Rs 64.23bn from the public. :
In the process, Ambani made Reliance Indias most popular company.British Gas acquired 3.1 million shareholders after its 1988floatation. Reliance Petrochemicals, which went public around the sametime, attracted the worlds second largest shareholder population of1.6 million. In 1977, Reliance Industries had 58,000 investors. Todayit has over 3.7 million.Size brought its own problems and solutions. Traditional venues forcompany annual general meetings were too small to accommodate the armyof shareholders who wanted to see their king, and Reliance startedhiring huge football stadia to host its AGMs. Indias creaky postaldepartment couldnt cope with the number of share certificates, annualreports and other correspondence which Reliance entered into with itsfamily of investors. The company had to fly executives to smallercities with mail as personal luggage which was then posted locally.Perhaps Dhirubhais most outstanding achievement has been to introducethe equity cult to every small town in India. Fanning out to tap ruralstock exchanges, he taught people who would never have thought ofinvesting in shares how to buy them, to track the price movements ofscrips, to deal with stockbrokers, and to develop the habit of readingfinancial dailies and stock market newsletters. An overwhelmingmajority of Reliance shareholders hold less than 100 shares, and one infour Indian investors owns shares in Reliance.Dhirubhai single-handedly energized the Indian capital market. Beforethe huge Reliance Petrochemicals issue, rough rule of thumbcalculations suggested there were three million shareholders in thecountry. In 1988, the government reckoned there were ten million. Toarrive at this key statistic, it didnt use sophisticated tools ofcalculation or market research but simply multiplied the number ofReliance debenture holders by three. Ambani was more thorough. Hepainstakingly garnered information on present and potential investors,and the quality of his data surpassed that of the biggest and bestmerchant banks.Ambanis relentless drive to keep Reliances price at very high levelsbooted the BSEs market capitalization. A sleepy Rs 54bn in 1980, ithad risen to Rs 510bn in 1990, and shot up to Rs 4,355b.n in 1995. Intandem with the trend, Reliances market cap exploded from Rs 1.2bn in
1980 to Rs 9.96bn in 1990 and Rs 96.2bn in 1995, making Ambani one ofthe richest men in the world.Dhirubhais modern way of thinking brought into play his secondachievement: the idea that Indian manufacturing could and should beworld class. He was the first industrialist in India to buildfacilities which could be compared to the best internationally, both interms of volume of production and quality of output. "My commitment isto produce at the cheapest price and the best quality," he insistedtime and time again. "Think big, think fast, think ahead," he wouldexhort colleagues.Before Dhirubhai, most Indian plants were pigmy-sized, partly becauseof their promoters blinkered horizon. "The size of Reliancesfacility represented a major departure from the "normal" Indianbusiness practice of the time. Instead of creating a "safe" capacitybased on reasonable projection of demand, Ambani applied for worldscale capacity that could meet the cost and quality standards on aglobal basis," says Sumantra Ghoshal, head of strategic planning at theLondon Business School and author of a major case study oft Reliance.According to S. P. Sapra, president of Reliances polyester staplefibre division, who joined Ambani after a twenty-year career with ICIIndia: "The fundamental difference between Reliances approach and thatof other companies was thatDhirubhai saw things that were hidden to other companies. The userindustry was held back by non-availability of supplies. Othercompanies would typically do a market survey that would show thecurrent usage at, say, 2,000 tpa. They would project that usage intothe future and arrive at a demand of, say, 5,000 tpa. They would thenset up a 2,000 or 3,000 tpa facility, depending on their projections oftheir market share. Dhirubhai threw away-that incrementa list mindset.He created capacity ahead of actual demand and on the basis of latentdemand."Before he could build his world size plants, he had to get hundreds oflicences. And for that, Ambani had to change the bureaucracys mindsetand force it to review the licensing system. Someindustrialists--Rahul Bajaj, the scooter manufacturer, forexample--shared Ambanis world vision, but lacked the latters knack orclout of making bureaucrats listen. According to Ambani, convincing
the government meant adopting a flexible approach. "The most importantexternal environment is the government of India. You have to sell yourideas to the government. Selling the idea is the most important thing,and for that Ill meet anybody in the government. I am willing tosalaam anyone. One thing you wont find in me and that is an ego," heonce said. His use of the word salaam infuriated the older,established industrialists.According to B. N. Umyal, a one-time left-wing journalist friend ofDhirubhai whom he invited to run his two publications, the SundayObserver and the Business and Political Observer, Ambani would spendhours educating the guardians of the Licence Raj. "Bureaucrats neededto be convinced by numbers and details. Ambani and his team never wentto Delhi without these," says Umyal. "They would gather the lateststatus reports on what was happening in different parts of the world intheir area of interest and distribute copies of these among influentialpoliticians and bureaucrats: We cant change our rulers, but we can atleast help them learn how to rule us better, he used to tell hisexecutives."Through his promotion of the equity cult and his world vision inmanufacturing, Ambani impacted the gconomy and polity as no businessmanhas done, not even Jamsetji Tata (1839-1904), the man who brought steeland electricity to India. Dhirubhai boldly infringed on the turf ofpoliticians and bureaucrats, saying, l consider myself a pathfinder.I have been excavating the jungle and making the road for others towalk. I like to be the first in everything I do. Making money does notexcite me, though I have to make it for my shareholders. What excitesme is achievement. I could never do a normal job. In this room,extraordinary things must happen." t:Yet in the same breath Dhirubhai says: "I give least importance tobeing Number One. You know, I was nothing just a small merchant--andnow I have reached this level. I consider myself fortunate to be inthis position.." but l have no pride. I am as I was." iInevitably, his rise has been accompanied by controversy. Thecorporate world is sharply divided between those who feel he is avisionary and those who consider him to be a manipulator and a crook. Alegion of critics accuse Ambani of leapfrogging the queue in obtaininglicences, of getting faster-than-normal gpprovals for his public issues
and capital goods imports, and of getting policies formulated favouringReliance (or disadvantaging its rivals or both).Many attribute Dhirubhai ssuccess to political patronage rather thanproficient management and claim that he will go to any lengths toachieve his motto: "Where growth is a way of life." Prior to the 1991New Economic Policy which more or less ended the Licence Raj, Reliancewas criticized for manipulating tariffs to suit its ends at the expenseof its rivals.To some, he became a symbol of all that is wrong in the Indian economy.Another set of businessmen felt that Reliance was an out-of-controlmonster, a bubble that would burst at any moment.Outwardly, Ambani appeared unfazed by these allegations. "Controversyis the price to be paid for success. You must understand humanpsychology. Because, not so long ago, I was just a riffraff boy andpeople would say: "Who is this Dhirubhai? He was merely a hawker whoused to wait outside our cabins." This is the truth andl am notashamed of that. My skin, fortunately, is very thick! However, thefact remains that when an elephant walks, dogs tend to bark.""Reliance would not have reached this level if any of the charges weretrue," he continues. "Look at the past. I wasnt the only one to getlicences. But just because the government gives you a piece of paper,it doesnt automatically mean that you can raise money from the capitalmarkets, or put up plants in record time. And give sensible returns toshareholders. Thats 98 per cent of the work. The paper work is only2 per cent." He does, however, agree that Reliance has often beengranted favourable licences, but claims that there were rejections aswell.In many ways, Ambani bridged the old and the new. The first time Iinterviewed Ambani, in April 1984, Reliance had just declared itsintention of turning non-convertible debentures into convertible ones,a move which was being widely criticized. Smiling at my discomfort, hefloored me. "Why dont you just come out and tell me I am a crook tomy face? I know some people think that what I m doing is a fraud, butbefore you journalists come to interview me, study what is happening inthe international financial markets. And then come to me." That year,in a tribute to Ambanis entrepreneurship, Imprint, a magazine whichwould later hound him, lauded Dhirubhai as the best of a new breed
ofIndian industrialists--a creation of the 60s when thepolitico-bureaucratic axis that was to determine the future ofI3the Indian economy had emerged,Like the elephant he compares himself to, Reliance dominates thecorporate jungle. The Ambani empire is smaller tl than those of RatanTara and Basant Kumar "BK Birla, but then, he didnt have the samehead start. The Birla group has been around for a century, the Tatasfor a century and a quarter,Like the vigorous pioneer-founders of these groups, Dhirubhai has neverrecognized barriers. As an attendant manning a Shell gas station,Dhirubhai swore he would one day head a company like Shell, hunt foroil and refine it. Sceptics laughed, but he made his dream come truewithin one lifetime. In 1986, he declared that Reliance, then a Rs 9bncompany, would in ten years be a Rs 80bn company. Sales in 1995 wereRs 78bn. The sceptics were silenced: today, he believes Reliance canbe aRs 300bn company by the end of the century.In 1995, the petrochemical, oil and textile manufacturer was Indiasbiggest non-government company by almost every yardstick includingsales, profits, net worth, and asset base. Its market capitalizationthat year was Rs 96bn. The previous year, it was the only Indianentrant in Business Weeks list of the fifty largest companiesheadquartered in developing countries. From 1977 to March 1996, itssales have increased from Rs 1.2bn to Rs 78bn, operating profit from Rs150m toRs 17.Sbn, net profit from Rs 25m to Rs 13 bn, net worth fromRs 140m to Rs 84bn, and asset base from Rs 310m toRs 150bn. It is an incredible accomplishment. There is no doubt thatAmbani was helped by political and bureaucratic decisions that went inhis favour, but despite this his achievements are out of the
ordinary--a testimonial to a man with extraordinary business acumen andvision.One could be forgiven for thinking theres a sense of atis faction atMaker Chamber IV, 222 Nariman Point, one of ;ombays most famousaddresses and the headquarters of the at ion third largest privatesector company. Curiously, there nt. On the contrary, insideReliance and within the family here is a feeling of being constantlyunder siege. Reliance :ould have gone further, could have done farmore, had its nemies not put up roadblocks. "The so-calledtorch-bearers of ruth have always been trying to poison the minds ofpoliticians nd civil servanls on behalf of our business rivals," saysmbani.Ambani is not the only overachiever to experience eelings ofpersecution. "Success is a lousy teacher," writes Bill 9ates in hisbook The Road Ahead. Gates, founder of icrosoft, is one of the richestmen in the world and in 1q95 Microsofts market cap was the tenthhighest among US corporations, according to Fortune. Given the sheernumber of records Microsoft and Windows, a computer operating system,have broken, complacency could have taken over. Instead, Gates says,"The outside perception and the inside perception of Microsoft are sodifferent. The view of Microsoft is always kind of an underdog thing.In the early years that underdog, almost paranoid attitude, was amatter of survival."At Reliance too an edginess, a sense of anxiety pervades theorganization. This edginess has given birth to all kinds of odd anddangerous rumours. Cumulatively, they spread the message--play withReliance and you play with fire.Face to face with the legend, its hard to believe that theres a darkside to Ambani. When he smiles, its a cheek-splitting ear-to-eargrin. Genuine. Affable. Genial. Hes quick to break intoinfeclious, uninhibited laughter, to rub his hands in glee, or slap hisknee to emphasize a point. Whether in a white half-sleeved safari orone of his conservative darksuits and crisp white shirts with his trademark flamboyant red silktie, theres nothing half-hearted about the most talked about
businessman in India.Legs planted squarely on the ground, his head cocked slightly, histhitaning hair cropped shorter than a marines, eyebrows flying over abroad forehead, Ambani looks relaxed. Its a habit. Hes at hiscoolest when the going is tough. At sixty-three a few years youngerthan Rama Prasad Goenka and a little older than Ratan Tara, Ambanislevel of personal motivation is amazingly high, his drive, if that ispossible, even more insatiable than before.He freed himself from day-to-day operational management of the groupsmanufacturing facilities the moment his sons, Mukesh and Anil, joinedthe family firm in the mid-80s. At the beginning of the 90s, hemoved away from the chief executive post (though technically he stilll holds that position) to conceptualize the companys long term goalsas also to spend a little rrrore time with the family. Dhirubhai nolonger puts in the long hours in the office he used to--he comes in atnoon and leaves three hours later--and spends more time dandling hisgrandchildren on his knees than poring over financial reports. Despitethe shorter hours and the 1 inevitable distancing, his is a crucialrole, beyond that of a visionary and strategist. Fiercely protectiveabout the company he founded, he often steps in to smooth its workingthrough a quiet word with a recalcitrant customer, a judicioustelephone call to a political bigwig, or the occasio hal discreetmeeting with a competitor at a lawyers flat. Asked if he had everthought of retirement, Dhirubhai riposted instantly: "Ncvcr. Till mylast breath I will work. To retire there is only one place--thecremation ground."The hectic pace he has always set for himself and the rapid tumble ofhair-raising events have left their mark. In February1986, when he was fifty-four, he suffered a paralytic stroke from whichhe never fully recovered. At the time, people whispered he would neverbe able to walk again. Undeterred, Ambani built himself awell-equipped gymnasium and got to work, teaching his body to respondto his minds demands. Within months, he was at the mike, addressinghis loyal shareholders, who cheered him as if he were movie heroAmitabh Bachchan himself.In the autumn of his life, there are few regrets over the twists andturns it has taken. But when asked on his sixtieth birthday whether
there was anything lacking in his life, Dhirubhai surprisingly replied:"Yes. Business and its expansion takes up all my energy. I have notbeen able to devote enough time for social work and I feel sad aboutit. But, in another sense, 23 lakh shareholders plus countless othershave benefited directly or indirectly from Reliances success. Still,in the area of social work a lot needs to be done."The admission was a major turnaround for the man who earlier hadstoutly attacked the idea of corporate charity. "What is our socialcommitment? Helping the blind or doing charity or something like that?No," he was fond of declaring. "As an industrialist my job is toproduce goods to satisfy the demand. Lets be very clear about it.Everyone has to do his job. My commitment is to produce at thecheapest price and the best quality. If you dabble in everything thenyou make a mess of things. If we cant take care of our shareholdersand employees and start worrying about the world, then that ishypocrisy."Ambanis single-mindedness is legendary, and hes proud of it. "I donot give attention to anything except Reliance. I am not a director inother companies. I am not actively participating in any associationsor in anything else. My whole thinking, one hundred per cent of mytime, from morning till evening, is about how to do better and betterat Reliance." No art previews, no theatre, no films and he rarelyswitches on his CD player.What has sustained this single-minded commitment? Nasha, says K. K.Malhotra, head of Reliances manufacturing operations and a formermanaging director of Indian Oil Corporation. "One day, Dhirubhai and Iwere having lunch together at Patalganga. He ordered soup and a pa pad|ordered a one-egg omelette. Then he said, "This is all we need,right! This is all we can consume .. . but the excitement is tobuild... Usmc has ha haL"In shaping Reliance into a colossus, the largely self-taught Dhirubhaiused his own brand of earthy, practical, bah ia brain aided by aninexhaustible desire for information. Its unlikely that he read Tom"In Search of Excellence Peters and his sticking to the knittingmantra. According to Anil, his fathers reading habits dont includemanagement texts." He wont read Arthur Steel and Ayn Rand but he willread Time, Newsweek, the Economist to appease his hunger for news.Though he wont read the Harvard Business Review, he will say: "Let my
management chaps read that." Hes still an avid reader. If you givehim a world food market report, he would like to read it, but if youtell him here is ales son on organization design, he will say: "Sorry,not my cup of tea."At Reliance, this habit developed into an almost obsessive interest inthe economy and its strengths and weaknesses. A full-time brains trustis continually preparing position papers on subjects as diverse as IMFloans or the shortfall in the Sixth Plan. Information gathering hasbecome as sophisticated as its other operations. According to R.Ramamurthy, who joined Reliance from Chemplast, the Ambanis areenormously bold but their actions are influenced by their unmatchedaccess to information. They know What is happening in every singlecorridor of the government ministries. They know about theircustomers. They know more about their competitors--even about theirday-to-day operations--than the top managers of those companies .. .they can judge where the money will flow. and it is not just abouttheir immediate business. They suck up knowledge about everything,constantly. Their magic is not just ambition but ambition withinformation."It is traits such as these which make Dhirubhai stand out from thecrowd. At the same time, if youre looking for sophistication in thisself-made industrialist, you wont find it. Hes never been one forceremony--its quicker to open the car door yourself than wait for thechauffeur to come round!--and if youre expecting management jargon,you wont hear it. "Dhirubhai can talk shop non-stop, mostly in BombayHindi," says a family friend. "And he can compel the most reticent mento open up and contribute dozens of sentences. He provokes and luresyou into talking. And when he talks, he doesnt bother about mundanethings like correct sentences, grammar, etc. The meaning is conveyedin the quickest possible manner, his Hindi phrases filling up the gaps.If you are used to listening to English with a Gujarati accent like Iam, then youre on a good wicket."THE ZERO CLUBIn the days before he became the typical reclusive billionaire,Dhirubhai would often ask journalists to write about his rags-to-richesbackground. "Please mention this in your magazine because I am proudof it and people should get inspiration from this." Or he would say,"I am only a matriculate and I would like you to particularly mention
this fact. People will have hope that they too can become successful."Says Udayan Bose, founder of Credit Capital a merchant bank, "Hes notin the old-fashioned mould and always jokes that he belongs to the ZeroClub because he started with nothing."His lack of higher education seems to have bothered Dhirubhai. Whenhis sons were old enough, he would send his sons to Stanford (Mukesh)and Wharton (Anil). "It [further education] is most essential,otherwise I would not have educated my sons. I learnt the hard way.Maybe if I had some education my success and growth would have beenquicker."Despite his self-evident achievements, Dhirubhais tarnished image inthe early years of his success denied him public recognition. BusinessIndia, a champion of capitalists, couldnt bring itself to bestow itsprestigious Businessman of the Year award on Dhirubhai until twelveyears after the citation had been instituted Three Tata men (RussiMody, S. Moolgaokar and Ratan Tata) got it before Ambani. HP. Nanda,Rahul Bajaj and Keshub Mahindra were crowned before him. Ambanifinally received it in 1993. The citation hailed him as the symbol ofthe new Indian dream but the delay rankled.Dhirubhai was born on December 28, 1932 to Jamna and Hirachand (d.1951)Ambani, the middle of five children, three boys and two girls.Hirachand was the local schoolteacher in a village called Chorwad, inJunagadh district, Gujarat. Nearby was Porbander, the birthplace ofMahatma Gandhi.According to Ramniklal, the eldest son, his younger brother was alwaysthinking up money-making schemes. "During the Mahashivratri fair,Dhirubhai got together with some friends and sold ganthia, a Gujaratisavoury," he recalled. Adds a Chorwad contemporary, "Dhirubhai was afamiliar sight here, cycling from village to village. All he neededwas the whiff of a business opportunity and he was off to book theorders. Schoolteachers arent paid much. The salaries are a little better incities, but village teachers cant afford higher education for theirown children. Like his elder brother before him, as soon as Dhirubhaihad matriculated, it was time to shut his books and get to work.Ramniklal was in Aden, a port city now part of Yemen but then a British
crown colony, and he sent a message back that jobs were available.Dhirubhai joined him there. :Only Natwarlal, the youngest son, would get. a college education.Once the two elder sons had started sending money home regularly,Hirachand felt they could afford to send Natwarlal to a smart Bombaycollege. It was hoped that the youngest son, if he could become agraduate, would lift the family from poverty to a middle-classlifestyle, but it would be Dhirubhai who would achieve this and more,his activities becoming important enough for Forbes and Fortune, theFinancial Times and the Far Eastern Economic Review to report them.At seventeen, Dhirubhai reached Aden. "I wanted to earn a living. Iwanted to start earning as quickly as possible. I was not looking atlife from any other angle but the angle of how to earn. I wanted tomake a success of whatever I did. That was the paramount thing in mylife, "he would recall several years later.Shell, who had set up a refinery in Aden in 1953, paid his first salaryof Rs 300 a month. "He learnt a lot about the oil business," says AnilAmbani. "He worked in a petrol station, filling gas, collecting money.Then he rose to become a sales manager." Soon he graduated to clerkdom in a general merchandizing firm, A. Beese & Co (an affiliate ofBurmah Shell), where he worked for the next five years, all the whileimproving his Arabic. By the time he left Aden, his salary had risento Rs 1,100.As a tiny cog in an insignificant subsidiary of Burmah Shell, theteenager from Chorwad watched the global giants workings with growingfascination. "Our backgrounds were so different. At that time we wereworried about spending even ten rupees and here this company would nothesitate to send a telegram worth, five thousand rupees. They didntcare. Whatever information must come, must come. In those days therewere no telexes. So they used to send telegrams of five thousandwords, even twenty thousand words. It wasnt an extravagance. It wasthe need for doing the right thing at the right time." Dhirubhaisfertile mind soaked up the lessons. "I had dreams of starting acompany like Burmah Shell."Dhirubhai lived and worked in Aden for almost eight years beforecalling it a day. "I wag very happy there. I had my own car and fiat,but a time came when I wanted to do something on my own. Yes, I could
have done some business in Aden itself but I wanted to do something inmy own country. So on December 31, 1958, I landed in Bombay to startmy own business with a few thousand rupees."When Dhirubhai left Aden, he wasnt alone: he had a son and a pregnantwife. Kokila R. Patel and Dhirubhai were married in March 1954 atChorwad. Mukesh was born in Aden three years later. Anil was born inBombays Cumballa Hill Hospital in June 1959. Dipti DattarajSalgaonkar was born in January 1961, and Nina Shyam Kothari in July thenext year.Jamna had chosen Kokila for Dhirubhai and her judgement turned out tobe faultless. Now very much the family matriarch, Kokila rules over aluxurious household which needs a foods and beverage manager brought infrom the Taj Mahal Hotel; takes the brood of Ambani, Salgaonkar andKothari grandchildren on five-star holidays together; and sits in thefront row at Reliances mammoth annual general meetings with the otherwomen of the family. At sixty, there are traces still of the slim andfair village belle Dhirubhai had married in a simple ceremony inChorwad. In the early days, with her husband shuttling between thegroups plants andDelhi, Kokila quietly took over the job of rearing their children andlooking after the extended family, cooking, cleaning and ironing thecrisp white shirts Dhirubhai favoured, making ends meet.The young couple decided to settle in Bombay. Hirachand had died in1951 when Dhirubhai was nineteen and still unmarried, and there waslittle to draw them back to Chorwad. The entire family uprooteditself, from Jamna downwards, and rented a flat at Kabutarkhana... "Doyou know where Kabutarkhana is? Do you know where Bhuleshwar is?"asked Anil. "Thats where Maganlal Dresswalla is. Thats where thedoodhwallas are. We used to stay in a place called Jai Hind Estate onthe fifth floor. Its a big chawl with 500 families staying in it. Itwas cheap. What was it? It was a one-bedroom house. My dad, mymother, my grandmOther, my uncle, my brother and myself lived in oneroom."We used to play in the chawl. There used to be this big corridorrunning alongside twenty pigeonhole type flats on one floor. We usedto be there, looking at the activity in the street below. Why is itcalled Kabutarkhana? Its a huge place where all the pigeons descend
and people feed them chana. Next door theres a temple. So everybodygoes into the temple, prays, comes out and throws chana to the pigeons.Theres a milk market in a locality called Panjrapole. The embroiderybusiness is right there. Oh, theres a lot of hustle and bustle inKabutarkhana."Dhirubhai took a loan and started the Reliance Commercial Corporation,a trading firm, with a capital of Rs 15,000, operating out of a cornerin a borrowed office in Bhaat Bazaar. "I was primarily involved ingeneral merchandizing," recalls Dhirubhai. "Reliance CommercialCorporation was an export house which dealt basically in commoditieslike ginger, cardamom, pepper, turmeric, cashew nut etc. We had a lotof connections in Aden and we exploited these connections to export awide range of commodities. Aden being a free port had tremendousdemand for a range of commodities.""My father was not only exporting spices, he was also exporting sugar,ghee, and, soil, anything that had the potential," said Anil. Soil?Apparently an Arab had asked Dhirubhai to send him a consignment ofIndian soil in which to grow roses in the desert. Was this alegitimate business deal or one of Dhirubhais creative schemes? "Thatwas a onetime thing. The Arab sheikh opened the letter of credit andwe got the money. Now if the sheikh dumps the soil into the sea ordrinks it up, who cares? See the opportunity and strike."As the money started flowing in, Dhirubhai shook off his villagementality--which perhaps he never did have--and learnt to spend money,city-style. In his eyes, it wasnt extravagance, but a broadening ofthe mind, another lesson picked up from Burmah Shell. "Suppose you andI go to the Taj to have drinks," he explained once. "One bloody drinkcosts sixty-five rupees. But all the same we have a few drinks andcome out as if nothing has happened. If a person from my village comesto know that I have spent five hundred rupees on just a few drinks,hell be shocked. Hell say this fellow has gone mad, saala company kadiwala nikaal deyga. What I am trying to say is that I have developeda broadness of mind which my friends in the village cannot think ofhaving."One of those who often shared a drink or a round of bridge with theupcoming ty:oon was Murli Deora, president of the Bombay RegionalCongress Committee and like Ambani, then an impecunious yarn trader.With a wry smile, Deora recalls business trips to Delhi where since
neither could afford a hotel room, they had a storage arrangement withAshok Hotel for their briefcases and returned to Bombay by the lastflight.Sunday evenings were reserved for the family and they would roamChowpatty beach or Dadar Circle for the best snacks and juice parlourin town. Remembering those days, Anil said, "We had a great deal ofattention from both my father and my mother. Somehow he used to findthe time. My father believed that the childhood years are whencharacter and motivation are developed Sundays were very important inour lives. He used to take us out to football or hockey matches. Atthat time, the options were very clear. We had the choice of twosnacks or one drink and one snack. We used to jump when Sunday arrivedand we would be thrilled because we would be taken to an Udipirestaurant for idli sambhar. Sunday was an important day."Most excursions were by bus. As a school kid, Dhirubhais biggestambition had been to own a jeep. "I was a member of the Civil Guards,something like todays NCC. We had to salute our officers who wentaround in jeeps. So I thought: one day I will also ride in ajeep andsomebody else will salute me." In the mid-60s, the governmentintroduced an export promotion scheme where earnings from the export ofrayon fabrics could be used for the import of nylon fibre. Ambanisattention switched from spices to the textile trade. And he boughthimself not a jeep but a Mercedes. A few years earlier, he had got adull black Cadillac with dark tinted windows. Thirty years later, hesstill using it. Its the most famous car in Bombay. And yes, theresno shortage of people waiting to salute him."GROWTH IS A WAY OF LIFEAt first, there was little to differentiate Ambani from other yarntraders. Like them, he worked Bombays hot and teeming yarn markets,living off tea shop snacks and endlessly chewing paan. As his mindbroadened, he started pulling away from the crowd: In February 1966,at about the same time as the late Aditya Birla, BKs son, wasnegotiating the purchase of Indian Rayon, Ambani built a spanking newmill at Naroda, twenty kilometres from Ahmedabad. Both were spinningmills and produced roughly the same product. Birla paid Rs 3m to btyIndian Rayon while the capital cost of Ambanis mill was one tenth thatat Rs 280,000, which he borrowed. Ambani was then thirty-four yearsold, Birla twenty-three. Both foresaw synthetics as the fabric of the
future though they arrived at this common ground from opposite routesand different backgrounds.Ambani registered Reliance Textile Industries with a paid-up capital ofRs 150,000 not as a composite mill but as a power loom unit. "We gotthe licence for power loom because the regulation was that you couldnot make 100 per cent filament synthetics except on licensed powerlooms Aditya Birla latched on to the same idea. "Not only Reliance,Gwalior was a power loom factory. I am telling you, Gwaliors Dornielooms were also known as power looms What a fallacy! People thinkcomposite mills are first class, that power looms ari second class. Iwanted to remqve that feeling."As their name suggests, composite mills offer a integrated approach,producing fabric at one location righ from spinning cotton into yarn,to weaving, printing an, processing. In contrast, the power looms ofBhiwandi an elsewhere tend to be garage operations in size andstructurt small and unorganized. Typically they buy yarn from out sidand weave grey or unfinished fabric which they sell process houses.After printing and other processing, tt fabric--generally unbranded--issold to the wholesale trad, which has financed the whole operation.Ambani had been dreaming of integrating backwards f some time. "I wasconstantly thinking of going in manufacturing," he said at the time."My desire was motivated by the fact that we were not able to produceand supply a quality fabric to the export market. It was a question ofintegrating backwards. If I had a ready product then I would not be atthe mercy of other units in the industry, and I could ensure thequality of the products myself." Over time, backward integration Wouldbecome a core Reliance strategy, the central theme for all strategicplanning, and it remained paramount in family conclaves untilrecently.But, at the time, it was hard to raise the piffling Rs 280,000 heneeded to get into manufacturing, with sceptics outnumbering believers.Among the former was Viren Shah, a fiery businessman-politician andchairman of Mukand Iron and Steel. Like Ambani, Shah traces his rootsto Chorwad where his family was the biggest landowner. Turning downDhirubhais request for a Rs 400,000 loan, Shah told a friend thisproject will not fly. He couldnt have been more wrong. In the firstyear itself, Seventy workers manning four warp-knitting machines and asmall dyeing section notched up sales of Rs 90m and a profit of Rs
1.3m. By 1977, the year Dhirubhai went public, the mill was earning atidy profit of Rs 43.3m from revenues of Rs 700m.Each year he added to the mill, and every time a new piece of machinerywas installed, Ambani, a God-fearing man, would call a pan dit and holda puja. Mukesh recalls, "As kids, we used to go around and say: Aajkiska puja ho raha had ? And we would be told that some new st entershave been bought, so we are praying to them." The pujas were perhapsmore a manifestation of Dhirubhais social conditioning, a kind ofinsurance taken out from the pantheon of Hindu gods and particularly(3anesha, the got1 of good beginnings, rather than a matter of personalbelief. "Yes, I believe in God, but I dont perform a daily puja. Idont have any gurus. Ek baat had,destiny, koi cheez had," Dhirubhai said reflectively. "I am not abeliever in religious rituals. I was brought up in the Arya Samajenvironment which taught us to shun rituals. Puja, of course, butsimple, elegant and brief."The prasad flowed as the Naroda complex grew. Sales were brisk, andfixed assets rose from Rs 280,000 in 1966 te Rs 145m in 1977, more thandoubling to Rs 370m in 1979. By 1983, on the eve of its entry intopetrochemicals, Reliance would become Indias largest composite textilemill, sprawling over 280,000 sq.m." producing three million squaremetres o! fabric per month, and employing 10,000 workers.To help him manage the exploding business, Dhirubhai turned to hisfamily and close friends. Ramniklal shifted from Aden to Ahmedabad tolook after administration and production at Naroda. Rasik Meswani,their brother-in-law, and Natwarlal stayed back in Bombay to look afterthe finance department. Also in finance was an old Aden hand, InduSheth, who had been a clerk like Dhirubhai in an export house, lndusbrother, M.F. Sheth, became the brains behind Reliances exportstrategy.This habit of plucking talent from wherever available would become aclassic Reliance management strategy. The Ambanis dont rely on paperqualifications. On the contrary, whoever shows initiative, gets thejob. So Reliances first marketing manager was one Natwarlal Sanghviwho used to sell petroleum products. Its knitting manager used to bean auto spare parts salesman. On the technblogical side, however,Dhirubhais approach was radically different. Over the next few years
he systematically poached the best talent from his competitors.Reliance had to have th best: JK Synthetics best yarn technologist,New Swadeshi Mills chief engineer, Grasims senior supervisor. Nomajor synthetic textile unit was spared.In building his industrial empire, Ambani shared Aditya Birlas viewthat when buying machinery, it must be the latest and the best. "Playon the frontiers of technology. Be ahead of the tomorrows," he kepttelling his new team. According to Minhaz Merchant, founder-editor ofGentleman magazine and Business Barons, the matric-pass Dhirubhai hasan uncompromising commitment to quality and what could almost becalled technological avarice--an obsession to be the first in Indiawith the finest technology the world can offer. In 1975 a World Bankteam visited twenty-four leading textile mills and reported thatjudged in relation to developed country standards, only one mill,Reliance, could be described as excellent. The rest they described asslums."Our expansion was dictated by the exigencies of the export markets.When there was a very high demand in the international market fortexturized and crimped fabrics, we decided to import texturizingmachinery. The import entitlements that we were permitted againstexports enabled us to import the most sophisticated and latesttechnology from abroad. Gradually we kept expanding the capacity ofthe mills, integrating vertically all the time. Now we have a fullyintegrated composite mill," said Indu Sheth, now retired.Much of Reliances investment into state-of the-art equipment wasfinanced by huge trading profits. As a private company, Ambani didntneed to puff his performance. Until it went public, Ambani used toplough every paisa of profit into the company, rarely treating himselfto a dividend.The heftiest profits came from the High Unit Value Scheme which thegovernment introduced in 1971, through which polyester filament yarncould be imported against the exports of nylon fabrics. This was agame which Ambani already knew how to play. He admits that RelianceCommercial Corporation accounted for over 60 per cent of exports underthe scheme and was therefore its larges beneficiary. Rumours spreadthat the scheme had been devise solely for him. At the Mulji Jethamarket, polyester was thet called chamak. Ambani became thechamatkar.
Even at that time, Ambani strongly disputed this argument. "You canhardly blame us for taking advantage the schemes when others kept theireyes shut. You do require an invitation when there is a profit. I donot consider myself cleverer than my colleagues in the industry. Ifthere was a very large margin of profit, why did they not takeadvantage of it? If anybody says that Reliance benefited immenselyfrom the High Unit Value Scheme, they are giving me credit at theexpense of their ignorance."The scheme remained in force for eight years. Many companiesparticipated in it. If others did not do well, perhaps, they could notexport their goods. We used to hold fashior shows in Russia and inPoland and exported our fabrics. W took planeloads [of fabrics] toZambia, Uganda and even Saud Arabia. At that time our strategy was toexport because expor gave a lot of prestige with the government."You have to look at the economy in its totality. Imports, and exportshave to be combined together to get a totality profit. Against exportsof rayon fabrics we were getting imporl entitlements for nylon fibre.In some areas, some cash incentives were also available. The premiumon nylon filamenl yarn was 100 to 300 per cent. It only once touched700 per cent. We were exporting rayon fabrics and importing nylonfibre and supplying it to mills. The profits were between 15 per centand 25 per cent net. We were one of the largest exporter and ourturnover must have ranged between Rs 15 and 2- lakhs. When the HighUnit Value Scheme. came, we were manufacturing and exporting. We usedto be allowed to imp or polyester filament yarn against export of nylonfabrics."When the scheme ended in 1978, Ambani turned to the domestic market."About 10,000 metres was being produced when I entered the market. Allthat I needed was a small gap which I could penetrate, and I did sosuccessfully. Our only difficulty was that we were not sufficientlyknown or established in the domestic market. Our first priority was toestablish our Vimal brand name. We therefore launched a crashadvertising programme," recalled Ambani.Dhirubhai supported Reliances entry into the domestic markets with anadvertising blitz that was unprecedented in India. Then and now, itout spent its competition with a budget which is on par with consumer
giants such as Hindustan Lever. Billboards, radio, print, andtelevision--once a distribution network had been established--blazonedthe mills message, ONLY VI MAL and the baseline, "A woman expressesherself in many languages--Vimal is one of them." The brand was namedafter Vimal, Dhirubhais eldest nephew, RamniklalsSOIl."People dont want the headache of comparing and shopping around. Theywould rather go straight for quality. Right from the start, I knewthat brand image was the most important part in order to win theconsumers confidence," says Ambani. To achieve this objective, "Wetried to emphasize that we were producing a superior fabric by layingstress on the technological sophistication of our unit in all ouradvertising. Simultaneously we took steps to evolve our owndistribution system as we found that the existing marketing channelswere inadequate and unsatisfactory. So much of our success inmarketing was a function of three factors--choosing the right productmix, identifying our market and establishing a viable distributionstructure."This strategy was enormously successful, so much so that an industryanalyst once commented, "In terms of market positioning, Vimal hasalways been a bit of a paradox. Although it has always been positionedas an up market product and has also been priced that way, itscustomers have stubbornly continued to be in the middle bracket."Before that happened, Ambani had to jump the first of many hurdles."When Reliance entered the domestic market it met with a lot ofresistance from the traditional cloth market whose loyaltiesunderstandably were to the older mills," sad a Mulji Jetha markettrader at the time.Confronted with a problem, Ambani thinks laterally, in this case, hebypassed the traditional wholesale trade, oPened his own showrooms,tapped new markets and appointed agents from non-textile backgrounds.According to Ghoshai, while Ambani did not pioneer the concept ofcompany stores--Reliances competitor Bombay Dyeing had innovated thispractice--he pursued this strategy on a grand scale.Ambani untiringly toured the country, offering franchises toshareholders. To those who agreed and had the shop-space, he promised
that Reliance would provide financial and advertising support. Manyaccepted. In his drive to achieve high volumes, Ambani spotted anentirely new market--the non-metro urban segment--and opened it up.Other mill-owners watched enviously as Ambani scooped rich profits fromfabric marketing in smaller towns, as the first to both recognize andexploit their potential.For three years, between 1977 and 1980, almost daily new and exclusiveVimal retail outlet would open its doors to business. "In fact, on asingle day in 1980 we opened as many as one hundred Vimal showrooms,"said K. Narayan, president of the textile division, who prior tojoining Reliance in the 70s had been a professor of commerce in alocal college. By 1980, Reliance fabrics were available all over Indiathrough twenty company owned retail outlets, over 1,000 franchisedoutlets and over 20,000 regular retail stores. Ambanis success infranchising and his speed in opening retail outlets is perhapscomparable to that of Benetton, the Italian knitwear company, orMcDonalds, the American hamburger chain.In his relationship with his dealers, Dhirubhai established apaternalistic attitude. According to Narayan, who is one of his oldestmanagers, "I used to tell my trade---doing business with us is riskfree. If you lose, come back to us. If you make profits, they areyours. Textiles is a trade driven product. Consumer acceptance isnecessary but then trade must help too. Most traders are smallentrepreneurs. So when I specify targets to a trader he should do hisdamnedest to perform."Traditional stockists, however, still hesitated to buy Vimalssynthetics range because it was too up market too expensive. Indianentrepreneurs had not yet begun manufacturing man-made yarns and fibreslocally. The government believed that India was too poor to indulge insynthetics and so discouraged imports by levying stiff customstariffs.Ambani questioned this we-know-best attitude. "For a poor country, forpoor people, fro fn the utility point of view, synthetics are the best.More and more people dont mind paying a little more provided they havethe assurance of quality," he insisted. "Do you remember Bri-nylon?Whenit first came, anyone who came in wearing a Bri-nylon shirt wouldbe walking two inches above the ground! That is how people felt andseeing that, I chose to go in for synthetics. And at that time the
duties were not so costly. That came later."The government refused to listen, hiking duties and capping production.As local supply fell short of demand, smugglers got into the act.Dhirubhais research showed that a staggering Rs 30bn worth of textileswere annually smuggled into India in the 80s. In arriving at thisnumber, Dhirubhai painstakingly collected data on supplies reaching theUnited Arab Emirates from such sources as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, HongKong and Singapore--and became an authority on smuggling in India. Hisinsight into consumer patterns may have been due to his personalbackground. He didnt look down on consumers or take them for granted.The polyester pasha had stumbled on a huge market which the older millshad missed completely.By 1980, sales were Rs 2.1bn and growing, but Reliances productioncouldnt meet demand. Ambani stretched the mills production capacityto its outer limits, continuously upgrading the technology andreplacing slower looms with faster ones, but he couldnt install morelooms. The governments licensing policy favoured the powerioom sectorand large mill owners even Ambani, found it difficult to get sanctionsfor capacity expansion. To overcome this constraint, Ambani startedsourcing grey fabric from the power looms of Surat, processing it atNaroda and selling it under the Vimal brand name.The Naroda mill was a watershed in the Ambani saga. It transformedDhirubhai from a mere yarn trader into a mill-owner, the top of theChristmas tree in Bombays high society and that of Ahmedabad, the twocities which mattered most to him. Often referred to as theManchesters of India, Bombay and Ahmedabad have grown rich on cottontextiles. Most mills were set up during the British Raj, their brownowners acting as blue-blooded as the Prince of Wales. Generations ofMafatlals, Sarabhais, Wadias and Lalbhais dominated western Indiasbanking circles and the Taj Mahal Hotels ballroom off Bombay harbour.In this rarefied atmosphere, the earthy Ambani with his swarthycomplexion and robust hail-fellow-well-met manner was a powerfulpresence.As a yarn trader, Ambani used to kick his heels outside thecustom-designed offices of the big serfs, waiting for the opportunityto make a sale. Some bought from him, others didnt. One of those whodidnt was Nusli Wadia of Bombay Dyeing, a young Parsi mill-owner ofimpeccable pedigree who would later clash with the older, brash,
go-getting trader (of which more later). Today, the boot is on theother foot, but "I call them my serfs still because I cant forget myold days," says Dhirubhai. "This is my nature, my culture."Under the se ths often third and fourth generation scions raised on arich diet of culture and bon ton, the Indian textile industry wasbeginning to look as if it had gone into terminal decline. More oftenthan not, it was referred to as a sunset business, one where therewas no fresh investment, no aggression. Whereas the old millsresembled cobwebbed museums, Reliances Naroda unit could have been inany developed country. "Once I had successfully put up a textilemill," said Ambani, "I decided I must have a world scale, fullyintegrated plant. All I wanted was to be competitive with countrieslike Japan, Taiwan, Korea."Like first generation trail-blazers in the mould of Mafatlal Gagalbhai(1873-1944) who started out hawking cotton cut-pieces on wayside roadsand ended up founding one of Indias largest business dynasties,Dhirubhai infused the textile industry with his dynamism and confidencein the future, it took Bombay Dyeing a hundred years to reach a salesturnover of Rs ibn. it took Ambani under a dozen.Ambanis success bred jealousy. Whispers started wafting throughtextile circles that Reliances phenomenal success owed less to goodmanagement and more to manipulation. The allegations forced a protest."We have always worked within the laws of the country and theguidelines set by government. People are jealous," Ambani grumbled."Many of these people were cotton mill-owners and they started to saythis when we threatened their leadership in the industry. There isnoJat difference between our methods and those of anybody bu else--theonly difference is that our motivation and dedication he is muchgreater." naDuring his days as a Mulji Jetha yarn trader, a rival once floated therumour that Ambani had gone bust. This was not se,the first time Ambani would have to fight for his reputation,and it would not be the last. Dhirubhai reacted by scrawling a frlpublic notice on the market board inviting everyone to whom he owed
money to come and collect their loans. "He didnt haveEa single rupee in his pocket at that moment," says Umyal, buthe had a tremendous faith in himself. He knew that once he offered topay back the loans, nobody would ask him for them. tiAnd none of them did. He truly understood the minds of men."Another time, Ambani was accused of black marketing, slDefamation had gone too far, he felt. To counter this latest a:attack, he asked D.N. Shroff, the then president of the Silk andArt Silk Mills Association and a long-time friend, to call a meeting ofits executive committee. Most were big names in the syntheticsbusiness. Looking them straight in the eye,Dhirubhai lashed out: "You accuse me of black marketing, butwhich of you has not slept with me?" Since each of them had at onestage or another bought yarn from or sold it to Ambani at the goingrate, that one question silenced them all.Reliance out paced the rumours. Sales doubled every two years from Rs49m in 1970, to Rs 127m (1972), Rs 302m (1974), Rs 628m (1976), Rs1,201m (1978) and Rs 2,097m(1980).It was time to shift from Kabutarkhana to more salubrious environs.Ambani bought a flat in Usha Kiran, then the poshest block in town,paying half a million rupees. Later he would buy two more, one eachfor his brothers. In the lift, once in a while, Dhirubhai would bumpinto another mill-owner,gdish Prasad Goenka, scion of one of Calcuttas oldest siness families,an art collector of rare Indian miniatures and ad of Swan Mills. Asthe days went by, Goenkas mashkars would become less enthusiastic, the
smiles forced. nbanis star was in the ascendant, but Goenka sethsstar emed to have forsaken him. Swan Mills financial troublesultiplied so badly that he abandoned it in 1987. Reliance went amstrength to strength.QUITY CULTfew years before shifting to Usha Kiran, Ambani went ablic. InNovember 1977, as in 1967, Dhirubhai had a hard me convincing people totrust him with their money. D.N. lroff tried to persuade friends ingovernment to buy Reliance lares but with practically no luck.According to Anal, "If we sked somebody to buy a hundred shares, hewould back out nd buy ten instead."Fifteen years later, Reliance toppled Tisco as the most faded companyin India. In 1993, Reliances daily turnover gas 386,000 shares or Rs97.6m; Tiscos 161,800 and s 35.7m.No one understands the psychology of capital markets and of the Indianinvestor better than Dhirubhai. Riding the crest n 1985, heebulliently declared: "My holding is 16 per cent, ut I cant keepcontrol over the company by my shareholding. I keep control over thecompany by showing performance and winning the confidence of theshareholder. I have never been afraid to expand my capital basebecause I know that I have the confidence of the shareholders. I dontmind if my shareholding gets diluted--and it is gettingdiluted--because as you must be knowing, very few chief executives of aCOmpany are loved by their shareholders as I am loved." The Wordswould haunt him during the fight for Larsen & Toubro.To keep his shareholders happy, he made sure that the price of Relianceshares performed better than the BSE index. For example, the High UnitValue Scheme ended shortly after Reliance went public. Ambanistumbled. To buy time, Reliances annual accounts were extended bythree months, ostensibly to bring Reliances financial year ending intoline with the calendar year (this at a time when mosi companies wereshifting over to a March year ending). Despite the dip in profits,Ambani declared a 27 per cent dividend. He had given 15 per cent in1977. The next year (1979), in addition to a 25 per cent dividend,Ambani issued bonus shares on a 3:5 ratio. The share appreciated by450 per cent.
Dhirubhai has a knack of introducing innovative financial instrumentsand giving fresh twists to old ones. In 1979, Reliance needed money tofinance a worsted (wool-blended) spinning mill and Dhirubhai picked upa forgotten financial instrument, the partly convertible debenture. Itwas not an innovation--Standard Alkali had issued them earlier--butDhirubhai found it difficult to get permission from the controller ofcapital issues. Arguing that it gave investors a guaranteed returnthrough, interest as well as offering the prospect of capitalappreciation through the conversion into shares, Dhirubhai relentlesslylobbied the government until it accepted the concept. Investors likedthe idea so much that the 1979 issue was oversubscribed six times andconvertible debentures (both partly convertible and fully convertible)became the instrument of choice for managements and investors.Between 1979 and 1982, Reliance made four successful debenture issues.The 1979 issue (for the worsted mill) was quickly followed by one in1980 (for modernizing its textile mill), 1981 (to finance PFYmanufacture) and a record Rs 500m one in 1982 at the time of the attackby the infamous bear syndicate which had forced the closure of the BSEand made Ambani a national figure.Later, Ambani would insist that he had had no choice but to defend theshare price. Reliances Rs 500re. debenture issue was slated to closeon May 20, 1982. It was until then the biggest issue. The nextbiggest offer was that of Telco, which had raised Rs 470m--and Telcowas at that time Indias second biggest non-government company, whileReliance wasnt even in the top twenty. To place the magnitude ofReliances issue in context, it is worth remembering that in 1990, theBSE raised Rs 1.7bn in a good week but in 1980, Rs 1.7bn representedthe whole years resource mobilization. Ambani wanted to raise onethird of that ai one go. The stakes in this game were phenomenallyhigh.Secondly, virtually every company making a public issue pushes, up itsshare price just before its issue opens. Aware of this, bears cash inby selling short just before the issue--when prices are high--anddeliver after the issue--when prices slump. During the 1982 bear raid,Ambanis obdurate stand against the bears ruined several brokers,earning him some powerful enemies. Someone began to ask how and fromwlere Ambani had got hold of Rs 120m to pay for those shares. Whilethrowing out baits, his fishing expedition hooked an unexpected nugget,one which shook the credibility of the finance minister and questioned
the sanctity of Parliament.it was quite a fluke, in answer to a spate of questions on July 26,1983 in the Rajya Sabha on the nature and extent of NRi investments inIndian companies, Pranab Mukherjee, the then finance minister, namedeleven companies which had invested over Rs 225m in Reliance betweenApril 1982 and March 1983. The question was probably aimed at SwrajPauls takeover bid of Escorts and DCM. It found an unexpected target.But for Mukherjees reply, nobody would have known that Reliance wasthe biggest beneficiary of the controversial NRI scheme.The names hinted at shady deals. Could companies called Iota,Crocodile and Fiasco be for real? Who would give their companies suchbizarre and funny names? The Calcutta-based Telegraph picked up thescent first and in September 1983 broke the news that eight of theeleven companies were not even in existence in the UK when theinvestments were made and that the registrations took place a day afterMukherjees statement in Parliament.When Parliament reopened after a recess on November 15, a number of MPsdrew the finance ministers attention to the Telegraph report anddemanded an explanation. Two privilege notices were submitted againstMukherjee, one in the Rajya Sabha by Satpal Malik (Lok Dai), andanother in the Lok Sabha by Madhu Dandavate (Janata). A khadi-wearingidealist and dyed-in-wool socialist, Dandavate was then a lowly MP of aparty which had little prospect of ever being in power. He would playa pivotal role in Ambanis career in the future.The Fiasco-Crocodil.-,lota riddle slowly unravelled. In the firstbreakthrough, investigative journalists discovered that the elevencompanies had been registered in the Isle of Man, an international taxhaven, between November 1979 and July 1982 and were owned by severalShahs, some related; others not.The clue left more questions hovering in the air. The companies hadacquired Reliance shares after Ambanis battle with the bears in May1982. Was there a link between the two events? The companies appearedto act in unison--at least six bought Reliance shares on the sameday--so there was probably one ultimate owner. Who was he and fromwhere did the Rs 225m come? The companies share capitals were small,no more than 200 pounds apiece, and only three had borrowed money to
pay for their purchases. Whoever controlled them also seemed to beremarkably well informed about Indian regulations. Three days afterthe finance ministry had relaxed constraints on NRI investments (onAugust 20, 1983), three companies applied to the Reserve Bank of Indiafor more Reliance shares. "It was all highly embarrassing for the government but as the mysterymans identity remained unknown and it became clear that technicallythe letter of the law, if not tile spirit, had not been broken, themedias interest fizzled out, especially after an RBI scrutinycommittee appointed for the purpose could not find any chink inReliances exhaustive replies to its numerous queries on the issue.PATALGANGABut what happened to the Rs 225m? Some of it must have gone towardspaying back loans taken out during the big bear fight. Ambani wouldhave paid about Rs 120m to buy 850,000 shares and perhaps as much againto support the share price during its extraordinary swings. Meanwhile,at Patalganga, a sleepy village seventy-one kilometres from Bombaywhich takes its name from the river on whose banks it is located, thepolyester yarn plant was almost ready to go on stream and bills werepouring in.Work on the Rs 800m plant had started in 1981. Right from thebeginning Ambani had an ambitious vision. It would be a world classplant, with the best machinery, all well laid out.Ambanis keenness for the project was not merely due to his confirmedbelief in backward integration. He saw in it a way to improve hiscompetitive position. As he later explained: "I was a buyer of thisproduct all over the world and I was observing what was going on--notonly with the producers in India but also abroad. I went to a majorcompany in the West and saw how inefficient they were.." people werenot working were having long lunch hours. The bosses too were notcommitted .. . and the cost of all these inefficiencies was loaded onto the product and was being passed on to me. I knew that we couldmanage the business a lot better, make more money than them, and yetsupply better and cheaper products to our mills."Ambanis opportunity to break into PF manufacturing came when theIndira Gandhi administration threw open the doors of this business to