Lack of adequate KSAs
Key catalyst in facilitating transfer
Need to gauge the behaviors being trained
Provides desirable outcomes to trainees upon successful
completion of training
Increased motivation from supervisor enhances performance
Employees assured of benefits
Two important motivators for learning which can be
controlled by the supervisor:
Employee’s perception of training relevance.
Side effects of attending training
Peer support occurs when people provide emotional or practical
help to each other.
Peer support is also used to refer to initiatives where colleagues,
members of self help organizations and others meet as equals to
give each other support on a reciprocal basis.
Peer support encourages both those being helped and the
helpers (communication skills, learning to negotiate with one
another and adults over areas of conflict)
Peer support contributes to school Improvements (where
children and young people are supported to read by their peers.
Peer support can be used to promote inclusion (through
promoting friendships between children and young people with
and without disabilities)
Peer support has measurable outcomes.
A peer support process is expected to:
Have basic training in interpersonal peer support
Maintain strict confidentiality
Have access to a mental health professional who will provide
Recognize the limits of peer support and know when and how to
make appropriate referrals to outside resources
Participate in the peer support network
Trainers should recognize that trainees will customize the training
themselves to fit their own needs.
Secondly, trainer must decide to what extent the trainee should be
able to demonstrate behavioral adaptability considering changing
conditions in the transfer setting.
Trainer should have discussions with trainees prior to training
regarding course content, the importance of the training to the job
& how it can be applied to job.
In addition, she/he should also discuss post- training issues with the
trainees and an emphasis on supervisory expectations regarding the
use of trainee skills to improve job performance.
Finally, trainer should sit-in and observe the trainee in a situation
where she/he is required to use the trained behavior.
To facilitate learning, trainees should be reinforced for their
efforts to learn, regardless of their degree of success.
If trained behaviors are not reinforced, then the likelihood is small
that such behaviors will be exhibited.
Reward systems provide trainee positive reinforcement for
achieving requisite outcomes; they need to be oriented to induce
desired behavioral changes.
Trainers should know the things that trainees will see as rewarding
and those that will be seen as punishing.
Both tangible and intangible rewards can be used.
It should be remembered that feedback is a reinforcer and key
element in learning; it is required to show what the trainee did well
and what needs improvement.
Individuals and teams should be clear about the targets and
standards of performance required.
Rewards system should be in a position to influence the
performance by changing people’s behavior or decisions.
Trainees should understand what rewards they will receive for
achieving the end results.
Rewards should be worthwhile.
The basis upon which rewards are made should be communicated
positively and should be easy to understand.
Trainer has a responsibility to work with the HR Deptt to align
reward system to support the behavior learned in training.
Attitude reflected by the upper management regarding training
Culture is a pattern of basic assumption invented,
discovered or developed by a group within the
Transfer of training is a critical issue for effective training practice.
Factors that can be introduced to facilitate the transfer of
knowledge and skills from training to the job:-
There must exist a system that unites trainer, trainee and manager
in the transfer process
Before training, the expectation for the trainee and the manager
must be clear.
Obstacles to transfer must be identified and strategies to be
formulated overcome these problems.
Managers should provide opportunities for the maintenance of
trainees’ learnt behavior in work organizations.
A continuous learning climate is needed to developed so that an
atmosphere emerges where employees feel it is important to
continually learn & develop.