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bamboo species good for construction in india nd as a material


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  • 1. BAMBOO CONSTRUCTION By deepanker
  • 2. INTRODUCTION… ø Bamboohasbeeninwideusagesinceancienttimesasa low-costmaterialforhouses, bridgesetc. ø Recentlystartedappearingindesignerhomesas flooring, wallingandpanelingmaterial ø Isviewedasa materialpreferredonlyby thepooror fortemporaryconstructions ø Unpopular in conventional construction due to low durability, lack of structural design data, exclusionfrombuildingcodesetc.
  • 3. Facts about bamboo ø Bamboo is a perennial grass and not a tree as is commonlyperceived. ø 1450 species are found in diverse climates across the world, however, not all of these are suitable for construction. ø One of the fastest growing plants on Earth. Its growth raterangesfrom30cmto 1 m in24 hours. ø The strongest part of a bamboo stalk is its node, where branchingoccurs. ø Bamboo has also long been used as scaffolding; the practice has been banned in China for buildings over 6 storeys but is still in continuous use for skyscrapers in HongKong.
  • 4. advantages ø Strength - Bamboo is an extremely strong natural fibre, on par with standard hardwoods, when cultivated, harvested,preparedandstoredproperly. ø Flexibility - Bamboo is highly flexible. During its growth, it may be trained to grow in unconventional shapes. After harvest, it may be bent and utilized in archways and other curved areas. ø Earthquake-resistance - It has a great capacity for shock absorption, which makes it particularlyusefulinearthquake-proneareas.
  • 5. advantages ø Lightweight - Bamboo is extremely lightweight. Consequently, building with bamboo can be accomplished faster with simple tools than building with other materials. Cranes and other heavy machineryarerarelyrequired. ø Cost-effective – Economical, especially in areas where it is cultivated and is readily available. Transportingcostisalsomuchlesser. ø Durability- As long-lastingasitswoodencorrelates,whenproperlyharvestedandmaintained.
  • 6. How to protect bamboo… UNTREATEDBAMBOO ø Untreated bamboo has the following life spans in different conditions > Exposure to soilandatmosphere= 1-3years > Undercover= 4-7years > Veryfavourableconditions= 10-15years ø Naturaldurabilityalsodependson thespeciesof thebamboo
  • 7. How to protect bamboo… BORAX– BORIC ACID PRESERVATIONTREATMENT Depending on the diameter of the bamboo, different sized drill bits, attached to a long steel rod, are used to drill into the centre of the bamboo culms throughout theirwholelength. At the preservation treatment pool, bamboo soaks in borax- boric acid solution (1:1.4) for 2 days to allow the mineral to penetrate all the nodes and diaphragms. Bamboo is removed and stacked vertically so the solution can drain and be reused.
  • 8. How to protect bamboo… Preservative solution is recharged after four cycles by adding water and the chemicals. Preservation treatment costs a minimum chargeof INR4.50perpole. BORAX– BORIC ACID PRESERVATIONTREATMENT Next, the bamboo poles are left to bask in the sun depending on the amount of sunlight The bamboo poles are left to dry slowly in a cool, dry place until they are used forconstruction.
  • 9. How to protect bamboo… ø During the casting and curing of concrete, reinforcingbamboo absorbswaterandexpands ø The swellingof bamboopushestheconcreteaway ø Then at the end of the curing period, the bamboo loses the moisture and shrinks back almost to its originaldimensionsleavingvoidsarounditself ø The swelling and shrinkage of bamboo in concrete create a serious limitation in the use of bamboo as a substituteforsteelinconcrete. ø One effective treatment is the application of a thin layer of epoxy to the bamboo surface followed by a coatingof finesand.
  • 10. How to protect bamboo… NEEMSEED OIL TREATMENT ø Oil obtained from neem seeds can be used to improve water resistance and dimensional stability of bambooculmsparticularlyat highoil-treatmenttemperature. ø Bamboo samples soaked in hot neem seed oil at 60°C for 4 hours had better water resistance and dimensional stabilitythansamplessoakedinoilat roomtemperaturefor24 hours.
  • 11. Bamboo foundations COMPOSITEBAMBOO-CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS SinglePostFooting StripFooting
  • 12. Bamboo foundations BAMBOOPILES ø Bamboo compacts soft soil, thus increasingthebearingcapacityof soil. ø The friction provided by the construction- grade bamboo increases its load-bearing capacity. ø Treated split bamboo piles 8m long and 80 to 90mm in diameter were filled with coconutcoirstrandswrappedwithjute. A sustainable house in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala where bamboo piles have been used as foundation . The foundation is furtherstrengthenedby bamboo reinforcedconcrete.
  • 13. Bamboo foundations BAMBOOPILES ø The sections were then tied with galvanised iron wire. After installation of the piles @2m c/c by drop hammer, the area is covered with a 2.5m surcharge of sandy material.
  • 15. RESISTANCE TO EARTHQUAKES ø High residual strength to absorb shocks and impacts. ø Flexurecoupledwithitsverylowmass. ø Prototype house built with bamboo sheet roofing and bamboo-reinforced concrete walls withstood a simulated earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale ø A bamboo house in Bhutan that withstood an earthquake that occurred at Sikkim (epicenter) measuring6.9inSeptember2011 ø 30 houses at the epicenter of a 7.6 magnitude earthquake survived without any damage in CostaRicain1991
  • 16. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Property Value Density 0.5 – 0.9 gm/cc Compressive Strength 53 – 100 MPa Tensile Strength 111 – 219 MPa Bending Strength 86 – 229 MPa Bending Elasticity 6882 – 20890 MPa
  • 17. bamboo column AND BEAM Bamboo Reinforced Column Bamboo Beams
  • 18. Comparative analysis 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Rate of construction per sq.foot in INR Concrete
  • 19. Comparative analysis 0 2 4 6 8 Concrete structure Wood structure Bamboo structure Energy consumptionduringconstruction
  • 20. Limitations and drawbacks Fewconsiderationscurrentlylimittheuseof bambooasa universallyapplicableconstructionmaterial ø Jointing techniques - Although many traditional joint types exist, their structural efficiency is low. Considerableresearchhasbeendirectedat thedevelopmentof moreeffectivemethods. ø Flammability - Bamboo structures are not fire-resistant, and the cost of treatment, where available, is relativelyhigh. ø Lack of design guidance and codification - The engineering design of bamboo structures has not yet beenfullyaddressed.Thereis littleor no datacontainingspecificationsof bamboo.
  • 21. Species of bamboos (preferable for construction) in india • Bambusa nutans • Dendrocalamus brandisii • Oxytenanthera stocksii • Melocanna bambusoides • Dendrocalamus strictus • Dendrocalamus hamiltonii • Dendrocalamus giganteus • Bambusa bambos • Bambusa polymorpha • Bambusa balcooa
  • 22. Bambusa nutans • Local names Bidhuli, Mukia ASSAM . Malla UTTAR PRADESH . Mallo, Mahi bans SIKKIM: LEPCHA . Badia bansa ORISSA . Kali, Beng, Makla TRIPURA • Habitat & distribution Grows best at altitudes of between 500-1500 m. Thrives on moist hill slopes and flat uplands, and well-drained sandy loam to clayey loam soils. Commonly found and cultivated in the North East, Orissa and Bengal. • Culm The culm is up to 20 m tall, dark green, loosely clumped, straight and smooth. • Flowering Flowers gregariously at an interval of 35 years. Sporadic flowering is also observed. • Uses House construction, basketry and craft.
  • 23. Dendrocalamus brandisii • Local names Bulka BENGAL . Wanan MANIPUR • Habitat & distribution Primarily found in tropical forests. Found in the Jiribam area of Manipur. Introduced into Coorg (Karnataka). • Culm The culm is up to 20 m tall, ashy grey to greenish-grey, and smooth. • Flowering Gregarious and sporadic. • Uses House construction and basketry, and to make han
  • 24. Oxytenanthera stocksii • Local names Konda, Oor-shema KARNATAKA . Uyi, Mula KERALA . Chivari, Mes MAHARASHTRA . • Habitat & distribution Typically grows from sea level to altitudes of 800 m. Confined and endemic to southern peninsular India. • Culm The culm up to 10 m tall, straight at the top, yellowish green, erect. • Flowering Sporadic. • Uses Suited for construction purposes. Also used for making furniture, ladders and supports.
  • 25. Melocanna bambusoides • Local names Mautak MIZORAM . Tarai ASSAM: BRAHMAPUTRA VALLEY . Arten ASSAM: KARBI-ANGLONG . Muli BENGAL, TRIPURA, ASSAM: BARAK VALLEY . Watrai MEGHALAYA: GARO HILLS . Moubi MANIPUR .Turiah NAGALAND • Habitat & distribution Found chiefly in the north - eastern part of the country. It grows best on low hills and in undulating countryside. • Culm Culms arise singly from the rhizome at a distance. • Flowering Gregarious. Flowering cycle is about 40-44years. • Uses Used in the construction of houses and for making woven products. An important source for paper pulp.
  • 26. Dendrocalamus strictus • Local names Lathi bans NORTH AND CENTRAL INDIA . Kanka kara, Sandapa veduru ANDHRA PRADESH . Karal BENGAL . Nakur bans, Kiri bidiru GUJARAT . Kallanmula, Kurathimula, Korna KERALA . Narvel MAHARASHTRA . Salia ORISSA . Kalmungil TAMIL NADU • Habitat & distribution Found normally at altitudes up to 1000 m, in dry, open deciduous forests. Widely distributed, it is the most common bamboo in India. • Culm The culm is up to 10 m tall, erect but slightly arched at the top. • Flowering Flowering intervals are long (25-45 years). • Uses The culms are used as building material and for making furniture, mats, basketry and implements.
  • 27. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii • Local names Kako ASSAM . Fonay ASSAM: KARBI-ANGLONG . Pecha WEST BENGAL . Tama WEST BENGAL: DARJEELING . Unep MANIPUR . Wanoke MEGHALAYA: GARO HILLS . Pao SIKKIM: LEPCHA . Phulrua MIZORAM • Habitat & distribution Occurs in fine-textured soil in semi-evergreen forests. Grows abundantly and well in the North East and Himachal Pradesh. • Culm The culm is large, up to 30 m tall, dull green. • Flowering The flowering cycle is 30-40 years. commonly and periodically • Uses Used as edible shoot, for roofing and construction purposes.
  • 28. Dendrocalamus giganteus • Local names Maipo ARUNACHAL PRADESH: KHAMTI , Worra ASSAM ,Maroobob MANIPUR, Bhalo bans SIKKIM • Habitat & distribution Grows well in humid tropical and sub-tropical regions, in the North East, West Bengal and Bihar. • Culm The culm is large, up to 30 m tall, dull green, with a waxy appearance • Flowering Sporadic. The flowering cycle is 40 years. • Uses Used for construction purposes and to make boat masts.
  • 29. Bambusa bambos • Local names Kotoha ASSAM .Behor bans BENGAL . Illi, Mula, Pattill KERALA . Kanta bans ORISSA . Nal bans PUNJAB . Saneibo MANIPUR Mungil TAMIL NADU . Bongu veduru, Mulla veduru ANDHRA PRADESH • Habitat & distribution Attains the best growth in moist deciduous forests up to an altitude of 1000 metres. Prefers rich and moist soil, and thrives near perennial rivers and valleys. Found almost throughout India, and is common in Central and South India. • Culm The culm is up to 30 metres tall, cylindrical, dark green, erect, strong and hollow. • Flowering Gregarious. Flowers at long intervals 40-60 years and the clump/plant dies after flowering. • Uses It is used as raw material for pulp and paper, to make panel products and handicrafts, and for thatching and roofing.
  • 30. Bambusa polymorpha • Local names Jama betwa, Betwa ASSAM, WEST BENGAL . Narangi bans MADHYA PRADESH . Bari TRIPURA • Habitat & distribution Prefers deep, fertile, well-drained loam and riverine alluvial soil. Commonly found in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Tripura. Also occurs in other parts of the North East. • Culm The culm is up to 25 m tall, light green or white grey to greyish-green. • Flowering Gregarious as well as sporadic. Flowering cycle is 55-60 years. • Uses It is a bamboo with many uses - as edible shoot, in woven form for handicrafts, and for house construction. It is also used for pulping.
  • 31. Bambusa balcooa • Local names Bhaluka ASSAM . Balku bans WEST BENGAL . Boro bans NORTH BENGAL . Wamnah, Beru MEGHALAYA: GARO HILLS . Barak TRIPURA • Habitat & distribution Occurs at altitudes of up to 600 m. Prefers heavy textured soil with good drainage. A common homestead bamboo in North East India and West Bengal. Also occurs in Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttaranchal. • Culm The culm is up to 30 m tall, dark green and thick-walled. • Flowering Gregarious. The clump/plant dies after flowering without setting any seed. The flowering cycle is 35-45 years. • Uses The most common use of this sturdy and strong bamboo is in house construction. It is a good bamboo for scaffolding and ladders.