Characteristics Of Cell And Lead Acid Battery

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Characteristics Of Cell And Lead Acid Battery

  1. 1. Characteristics of cell <br /><ul><li>Cell chemistry
  2. 2. Temperature effects &characteristics
  3. 3. Internal impedance</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cell chemistry</li></ul>The voltage of cell is fixed by the characteristics of cell, the so called cell chemistry.<br />Actual voltage appearing in any cell depends on load current & internal impedance.<br />
  4. 4. Typical cell life<br /> 1. Zinc Carbon 2-3 yrs.<br /> 2. Alkaline 5 yrs.<br /> 3. Lithium &gt;10 yrs.<br />
  5. 5. <ul><li>Temperature;
  6. 6. Cell characteristics change with temperature.
  7. 7. Low temp freezes electrolyte.
  8. 8. High temp may destroy the battery.
  9. 9. Rate of chemical reactions increases with temperature.
  10. 10. Affects battery life.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Internal impedance</li></ul>Internal impedance determines current.<br />It is affected by electrolyte.<br /> Temp. dependent.<br />Decreases voltage of cell during discharge.<br /> Voltage drop across internal resistance-IR. <br />
  11. 11. <ul><li>Lead acid battery;</li></ul>Invented by French physicist GASTAN PLANTE<br />Oldest rechargeable battery<br />Nominal cell voltage is 2.105v<br />Second lowest energy-to-weight ratio (next to the nickel-iron battery)<br />
  12. 12. <ul><li>Electrochemistry </li></ul>I<br />Sulfuric Acid Electrolyte:<br />-<br />+<br />Terminals<br />H2 SO4 +2H2O -> 2H3O+ +SO4-2<br />Oxidation at the Negative Plate (Electrode: Anode):<br />Sulfuric <br />Acid <br />Solution<br />H2SO4<br />Pb+SO4-2 ->PbSO4+2e-<br />Spongy <br />Lead (Pb)<br />Reduction at the Positive Plate ( Electrode: Cathode):<br />Lead Oxide (PbO2)<br />Cell: 2 V<br />Battery: Multiple cells<br />PbO2+2H3O++SO4-2+2e- ->PbSO4+6H2O<br />
  13. 13. <ul><li>Construction; </li></ul>consist of Lead &Lead Oxide <br /> electrodes<br />Which are dipped in Sulphuric<br /> acid <br />Normal Lead acid battery is <br />six cell battery <br />Separators are present in between electrodes <br />
  14. 14. <ul><li>Separators</li></ul>wood<br />rubber<br />glass fiber mat<br />cellulose<br />sintered PVC<br />micro porous PVC/polyethylene.<br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>applications</li></ul>Submarines <br />Motor car ignition<br />Industries <br />To maintain required <br /> voltages in sub stations <br />

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