ecological sucession

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ecological sucession

  1. 1. Intro Marine Ecology • Ecology: relationship of living things/environment • Marine Ecology: interdependence of all organisms in the ocean.
  2. 2. Marine Environment • Abiotic Factors: nonliving elements/ Chemical, Geological, Physical Variables • Biotic Factors:organisms / interactions among organisms
  3. 3. What is abiotic/biotic? • Water • Light • Temperature • pH value • Salinity • Substratum • Plants • Dissolved Gases • Pressure • Tides • Currents • Animals • Waves • Exposure to Air
  4. 4. Biotic Levels of Organizations • Individual: one organism • Population: group of individuals of one species (organisms) Habitat • Communities: plants and animals inhabiting the same physical area. • Ecosystems: Many communities / large geographic area.
  5. 5. Population
  6. 6. Communities
  7. 7. Characteristics of an Ecosystem 1. Requires a source of energy. 2. Organisms capturing energy / produce organic molecules. 3. Organic material available to all. 4. Cycle nutrients between environments
  8. 8. Zonation of Marine Environment • See handout
  9. 9. Ecological Distribution • Pelagic Organisms: in the water Plankton- drifting organisms. Nekton- swimmers • Benthic Organisms: in or on substrate (sand/rock) burrow, crawl, walk, or affixed Epifauna:live on. Infauna:live within
  10. 10. Plankton/ Nekton
  11. 11. Epifauna/Infauna
  12. 12. Trophic (Feeding) Relationships • Autorophs: absorb sunlight energy & transform inorganic mineral nutrients into organic molecules. Producers • Heterotrophs: consumers / cannot synthesize their own food. Need producers. • Decomposers: live on dead plant and animal. Break down organic material / inorganic nutrients.
  13. 13. Energy Transfer • Pyramid of numbers: numerical relationship of trophic (feeding) levels. • Energy Pyramid: energy distribution at each trophic level.
  14. 14. Pyramid of Numbers
  15. 15. Pyramid of Numbers
  16. 16. Pyramid of Numbers
  17. 17. Energy Pyramid
  18. 18. Energy Pyramid
  19. 19. Lost Energy/Energy Pyramid 1. Consumer do not consume (eat) entire organism. 2. Energy used in capture (food). 3. Energy used in metabolism. 4. Energy lost as heat. * 10% energy pass to next level.
  20. 20. Lost Energy/Energy Pyramid
  21. 21. Food Chain/Energy Pyramid
  22. 22. Food Web
  23. 23. Types of Food Relationships • Predator-Prey: Predator Needs? Prey Needs? • Scavenger: Feed on dead plants and animals • Symbiotic/Symbiosis: nutritional association
  24. 24. Symbiosis in Marine Animals • Parasitism: (+;-) one benefits, one harmed or interfered with body function. • Commensalism: (+;0) one benefits, one neither gains or loses. • Mutualism: (+;+) both benefit.
  25. 25. Parasitism/ Isopod on Fish
  26. 26. Commensalism/Anemone &Crab
  27. 27. Mutualism/Clown & Sea Anemone
  28. 28. Mutualism/Clam & Zooplankton
  29. 29. Population Cycles • Changes season/season and year/year • Regulated by Natality (new organisms) and Mortality (rate of death) • What are factors that affect population cycles?
  30. 30. Biomass Lab Activity • The Living Ocean:

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