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Indianpolityppt 121001081246-phpapp01

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  • 1. Chapter 1: Introduction Indian Polity Visit Us: www.iaspired.co.in Mail :info@iaspired.co.in Online Course
  • 2. Introduction  Basic structure of the political system  Establishes the main organs of the state  The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary  In a federal polity, the constitution delineates, delimits and distributes powers between the organs of state at Union level and those at the level of the states.  A living organism of functioning institutions
  • 3. Constitution of India  Adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949.  Came into full operation from 26 January 1950.  Originally, adopted with 22 parts, 395 articles and 8 schedules.  Amended time to time.
  • 4. Constitution of India  There have been as many as 94 amendments from 8 schedules have gone up to 12.  No. of Articles have increased from 395 to 448  A number of new articles and new Parts have been added.  Several articles or even full Parts have been repealed by constitutional amendments
  • 5. Sources of the Constitution ForeignIndigenous Diverse & Many
  • 6. Indigenous Sources  Evolved through various representative responsible governmental institutions.  Small doses of Constitutional reforms  Sources can be tracked back to the beginning of the East India Co. and the British Rule  Reference to Village Panchayats under the Directive Principles was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi
  • 7. Indigenous Sources  Evolved through various representative responsible governmental institutions.  Small doses of Constitutional reforms  Sources can be tracked back to the beginning of the East India Co. and the British Rule  Reference to Village Panchayats under the Directive Principles was inspired by Mahatma Gandhi
  • 8. Indigenous Sources  Demands for some of the Fundamental Rights was made as early as in 1918 at the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress  The commonwealth of India Bill in 1925 embodied a specific "declaration of rights" including  Equality before law  Freedom of speech  Assembly and religions, etc.
  • 9. Indigenous Sources  The Karachi Congress Resolution of 1931 contained special reference for fundamental rights and fundamental duties as well.  Several social and economic rights mentioned in 1931 resolution found expression in Directive Principles  A parliamentary system, safeguards for minorities and a federal polity have had sources in the 1928 Nehru Committee Report.
  • 10. Indigenous Sources  The Madras session of the Congress in 1927 reiterated the demand for fundamental rights.  10 of the 19 fundamental rights in the Nehru  Committee Report appeared Substantially unchanged in the constitution.
  • 11. Indigenous Sources  75% of the Constitution is the reproduction of the Government of India Act,1935  Basic structure of the polity  Provisions regulating Union-State relations  Declaration of Emergency
  • 12. Foreign Sources  Directive Principles from Irish Constitution  Parliamentary system with ministrial responsibility from the British  Provisions making the President, the Executive head of the State and Supreme  Commander of the armed forces were from the U.S. Model
  • 13. Foreign Sources  Vice-President, the ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States from  The U.S. Bill of Rights inspired our Fundamental Rights  The Canadian Constitution influenced our Federal Structure and provisions relating to Union-State relations.
  • 14. Foreign Sources  The Concurrent List in VII Schedule modelled on the Australian Constitution.  The German Reich influenced Emergency Provisions  Writs and Privileges have influence of the British Constitution
  • 15. Constitutional History of India  Constitutional Government in Ancient India  Concepts of democracy, representative institutions, limitations on the arbitrary powers of the rulers, and the rule of law were not alien to India  Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India
  • 16. Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India  The Charter Act 1669  For the first time, the company acquired the authority to rule over a territory and its people  Regulating Act of 1773  British Parliament’s control over the company started with this charter
  • 17. Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India  Pitts India Act 1784  For political matters a board of control of 6 members was appointed  Charter Act of 1813  The Act deprived the company of the monopoly of trade in India  Charter Act of 1833  The Act differentiated the law making meetings of Governor General-in- Council from its executive meetings.
  • 18. Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India  The Indian Council Act of 1909  This Act contained many of the reform proposals of Minto-Morley  Principle of communal representation was introduced for the first time  The Government of India Act, 1919  Based on the Montagu-Chelmsford Report  Indian Legislative Council was replaced by a bicameral legislature  Dyarchy was introduced in eight major provinces
  • 19. Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India  The Act of 1858  The Act finally became "The Act for the Good Government of India" of 1858  Indian Council Act of 1861  For the first time Indians were associated with the work of legislation  The Indian Council Act of 1892  The entry of the elected members marked the beginning of the new era in the life of the council.
  • 20. Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India  Wavell Plan and Simla Conference  The interim council was to be Indianized with the inclusion of Indian political leaders  The viceroy (Lord Wavell) convened a conference of Indian leaders at Simla  Cabinet Mission  Rejected the League demand for a separate sovereign state of Pakistan  Also rejected the congress scheme of a loose federation
  • 21. Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India  The Simon Commission 1927  Made a promise to set up a commission to inquire into the working of the Act 1919  The Government of India Act 1935  Envisaged a federation of all-India  Separated Burma from India and two new provinces of Orissa and Sind were created  The Cripps Mission  Proposed Dominion Status and the right of Indians to frame a constitution  Gandhiji condemned the proposal as a post-dated cheque
  • 22. Constitutional Landmarks in Modern India  Mountbatten Plan  Prepared a plan for the partition  Indian Independence Act, 1947  Indicated the territorial divisions of India into India and Pakistan  Pakistan was to comprise East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh and the Sylhet district of Assam
  • 23. Making of the Constitution  Formation of the Constituent Assembly  The first definite reference to a Constituent Assembly for India was made by Mahatma Gandhi in 1922.  Nehru Report was the first attempt by the Indians to frame a constitution for their country  Demand of a Constituent Assembly was for the first time conceded by the British Government in the August Offer of 1940
  • 24. Framing of the Constitution  The Constituent Assembly duly opened (First Sitting) on the appointment day Monday, the 9th December 1946.  The historic Objectives Resolution was moved in the Constituent Assembly by Nehru, on 13 December 1946.
  • 25. Framing of the Constitution  The Constituent Assembly on 29 August 1947 appointed the Drafting Committee with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman  The Constitution was finally signed by members of the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950  It took 2years 11months and 17days to frame the constitution  Criticism of the Draft Constitution: Not Being Original
  • 26. About IASpireD  IASpireD is an Online Learning Socially Driven platform that offers Online Courses and Digital Content Products for competitive examinations.  IASpireD aims to make interactive learning, socially driven education affordable and accessible to anyone, anywhere via the web. This Online Learning Socially Driven platform builds a user-friendly educational ecosystem. IASpireD*: I Aspire for Education Digitally.
  • 27. IASpireD Online Courses  Online learning, anytime, anywhere, and at your convenience  Learn at your own pace and around your own schedules  Helps you create Study Groups and access to peers beyond geographic locations  advantage of learning without relocating yourself  Convenient and Cost-effective education eliminating travel and facilities fees  Easily downloadable Course; suitable for your iPads, tablets and smartphones Mail: info@iaspired.co.in Visit Us: www.iaspired.co.in

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