Spread of religions• Missionaries, pilgrims, and converts; transmission of diverse beliefs and practices ; 2nd and 12th centuries.• Believers spread their faith to rulers of diverse states, merchants, travellers, and local communities. They adopted and promoted the new religions.• There was also vertical transmission of religion (from parents to children)• Colonization was another way in which religion was imposed upon the indigenous people
• Some elements of change occurred when religious leaders interpreted doctrine differently in different historical contexts• Change also occurred as a result of influence from indigenous religions; eg. Buddhist beliefs were translated into the Chinese cultural context, they were influenced and shaped by earlier Taoist beliefs.• The practice of adapting to a variety of local contexts was, one of the reasons behind the extraordinary success of most religions
Buddhism• In 2nd century B. C., Buddhist beliefs were transmitted along the Silk Road.• Buddhist missionaries were a major force• The missionaries came with scriptures and artwork.• Monasteries, stupas, were constructed.• Cave temples also emerged during this time. extensive wall paintings dedicated to Buddha, his saints, and his story (6th century A.D.)
Islam• During the 8th century A.D., a significant number of conversions to Islam began.• With the expansion of Islam, mosques replaced the Buddhist monasteries and stupas along the Silk Road.• By the 15th century, most of Central Asia had been converted to Islam.• Central reasons for the spread of Islam into Central Asia areA. governments supported Islam.B. less complicated to conduct trade with the local businessmen as a Muslim rather than a Buddhist because they were usually treated better
Christianity• Christianity started in Jerusalem. It spread in the Jewish country through its apostles• Even though it was not initially accepted in Rome, Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, making the spread of Christianity much easier.• establishment of different churches made it even easier to spread• European nations began to colonise the New World• soldiers and missionaries took Christianity with them to the new world.
Hinduism• The tradition understands itself to be timeless, having always existed. Was popular from 2000 BC.• The north india, was characterized by the religious ideas of the Vedas, which were brought from outside of India by ancient Europeans, the Aryans.• These outsiders invaded northern India and pushed the indigenous people (dravidians) to the south.• Since then Hinduism has historically been a non-missionizing religious tradition.• This is specifically linked to the fundamental theological worldview that all schools of Hinduism share - Human beings are reborn into the world according to their past deeds in prior lifetimes. This is the basic law of karma. Thus being a Hindu is not a matter of choice or cultural circumstance; it is a reflection of the workings of the cosmos
• Hinduism has, however, spread to other parts of the world.• It has spread as a result of Hindu kings conquering non-Hindu lands;• it has spread as a result of colonization and then globalization;• in the modern period it has spread as a result of westerners adopting, and converting to, Hindu practices and beliefs.
RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM• Use of symbols, including, acts, artwork, events, or natural phenomena, by a religion. Religions view religious texts, rituals, and works of art as symbols of compelling ideas or ideals• Every religion has its own body of symbols which suggests the ultimate reality, the deity and other spiritual truths• expresses the moral values of the society or the teachings of the religion, and foster solidarity among adherents• Bring adherents closer to their object of worship.• It is a way for an individual to declare their faith to the world (wearing certain clothing or jewellery that declares their faith)
• A symbol does not have the quality of conceptual clarity and specificity. Rather, it has the characteristics of vagueness and ambiguity.• Symbols can mean different things for different people.• The power of symbols lies in its vagueness. What it lacks in conceptual clarity is filled up by the power of its suggestiveness.• A symbol is seen to be a profound expression.• Wearing of religious symbols enhance their spiritual beliefs.• Wearing of religious symbols can be viewed as a good luck symbol to wearers.• Some may wear religious symbols as a statement.• Some wear religious symbols just because they liked the look of it.• Some wear religious symbols to draw strength from.
Om• Sanskrit letter Om.• First sound in the cosmos that led to creation. It is thus the first principle of the universe.• Composed of three separate sounds; The three worlds—the earth, atmosphere, and heavens; the three great gods—Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva; and three of the Vedas—the Rig, Yajur, and Sama.• Begins Hindu mantras, sacred verbal formulas, and prayers, and it is often the first (and last) letter of sacred texts.
Swasthika• Swastika is an ancient Hindu symbol that denotes well-being and auspiciousness. (in sanskrit :all is well)• charm to bring good fortune• The right-hand swastika is symbol of god Vishnu as well as the sun.• The Nazis adopted the swastika because it was understood as an Aryan symbol indicating racial purity and superiority
Lotus• Hindu gods and goddesses are typically depicted with lotuses:• Gods and goddesses are also described using lotus imagery:• Lotuses are associated with purity: although they begin in the mud, they grow up through the water and emerge on the surface. When they open, the flower is utterly cleansed.
Mudras• Mudras are symbolic bodily gestures that denote particular religious sentiments or intents.• For instance, the abhaya mudra, the gesture of "no fear" made by opening the palm outward; displayed by gods and goddesses to symbolize their protective abilities.• anjali mudra:"Namaste“ This is a gesture of respect and greeting; done not only when two people meet, but when a worshipper approaches a god.
Latin cross• Cross of Christ’s crucifixion. When shown with the image of Christ, it is called a crucifix.
Dove• The dove symbolizes purity, innocence, peace and is used to represent the Holy Spirit. The dove brought back an olive branch to Noah which was a sign to him that the waters had receeded.
Blessing• The three extended fingers suggest the Holy Trinity, while the two closed fingers represent the twofold nature of the Son.
Anchor• It ranks among the most ancient of Christian symbols found in the catacombs relating to the virtue of hope of salvation and holding secure in faith.
Crescent and star • What is seen today as symbols of Islam are actually remnants of past empires and modern Arab nationalism. They have little to do with actual Islamic beliefs • It was the flag of the Ottoman Empire- dominant Muslim power for almost 700 years. The European world always associated the Ottomans and their flag with Islam .
Shahadatain• means “two Shahadas.” The Shahada is the Muslim statement of faith.• The Shahada is the most fundamental belief in Islam. In order for a person to become Muslim, they must recite the Shahada.
Eight Pointed Star• prevalent throughout most of the Muslim world. It can be seen on flags, mosques, and Qurans.• Muslims have always used geometry and shapes to express themselves artistically rather than drawing, painting, or sculpting images of living creatures.• Arabic calligraphy and shapes were used to create beautiful Islamic designs. The 8 pointed star is a result of this.
Colours• The most prominent two colors are green and white.• green has been associated with Islam for centuries. Allah mentions the color green in several Quranic verses as the color of clothing in paradise.
The two golden fish• mean luck and fortune.• courage and fearlessness to face the ocean of sufferings and to be able to swim freely like fish through water.
Dharma wheel• Dharma chakra• used to represent Buddha himself.• It has also universally become the symbol for Buddhism.• The dharma wheel has eight spokes, which represent Buddha’s Eightfold Path.
The eternal knot• symbolize how everything is connected• represent how religion and secular affairs, as well as compassion and wisdom are united and connected to each other.
The Bodhi Tree,• Gautama Buddha, is said to have achieved enlightenment, or Bodhi under this tree• Bodhi tree is recognizable by its heart-shaped leaves, which are usually prominently displayed.
SYMBOL AS BRANDIDENTITY• Symbol is a sign that stand for something.• Symbols help customers memorize organization’s products and services.• Symbols emphasize our brand expectations and shape corporate images.• Symbols are made an integral part of brand identity.• Symbols are easier to memorize than the brand names as they are visual images. These can include logos, people, geometric shapes, cartoon images, anything.• Brand symbols are strong means to attract attention and enhance brand personalities by making customers like them.
• Brand Symbols are much more than plain artistic work and outcomes of creative bursts.• Symbols are the signifiers of the company’s ideology, history, heritage, spirit and tradition.• The brand cannot be imagined without the sign or symbol.• The symbol may indirectly deliver functional , self expressive or emotional benefit to the customers.• Brand identity is what the owner wants to communicate to its potential consumers.
Examples • LIC-two cupped hands protecting a lamp. It is a very powerful metaphor for what LIC stands for : the ‘cover against risk and provision of protection’ • Kelvinators Penguin Symbol-cool effect • ‘Three Petal’ symbol employed by ‘PONDS’-It is a metaphor for delicate, feminine and fragrant floral products.
• BRAND IDENTITY – PARACHUTESYMBOL : Flag shaped logo with a coconut tree against a blue back ground.The symbol shows purity, environment friendly.
MARKETING PERSPECTIVE• Religions have logos. People identify themselves with these logos.• People crave a sense of belonging to something larger than themselves• Large numbers encourage greater participation• Stories and larger-than-life promises are effective marketing tools, especially if reinforced again and again.
• Human species is open to manipulation by messages during early stages of development.• It is passed as an idea virus from parents to children, and is instilled from a young age while kids do not have defences to form their own opinions and make up their own mind.• Religion successfully rallies people, to publicly brand themselves as subscribers and work without any compensation as word of mouth marketers to attract new members to their religious brand of choice.• Thus religion succeeds in a big way even though it is purely based on spreading ideas without any evidence backing up their claims.