PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS
By Dr. Deepa Gautam
1st yr Resident ,Radiotherapy

1
History
• Wilhelm Conrad von Roentgen

2
• Born in Lennep, Germany in 1845
• Studied in Zurich, Switzerland
• Appointed as professor of physics at Giessen(1879)
an...
• Announced his finding about X-rays before the
Wurttemberg society(1895)
• Received Nobel prize in 1901
• Died at Munich ...
5
The very first X-ray image of human body taken which was
of Wilhelm Conrad von Roentgen’s wife’s hand with ring.

6
Dr. Charles L. Leonard(1903)
• Demonstrated the power of Roentgen rays to alter
the characters of malignant cells , preven...
X-ray Tube
Consists of:
•Glass envelope which is
evacuated to high vacuum
•Cathode(-) with tungsten
filament and focusing ...
The Cathode
• Tungsten filament (atomic number 74 and high
melting point of 3370oC) when heated emits
electrons(thermionic...
The Anode
• Tungsten target with high melting point to withstand
intense heat produced by electronic bombardment
• Copper ...
Principle of Line focus: helps in adjusting the size of focal spot
•A is the side of the actual focal
spot
• a is the appa...
12
Heel effect
• X-rays produced at various depth in the target vary in
amount of attenuation , greater attenuation for
those...
Basic X-ray Circuit
• Divided into:
– the high-voltage circuit to provide the accelerating
potential for the electrons
– t...
High voltage circuit
• X-ray tube with cathode and anode
• Step-up transformer to supply high voltage and low
current to x...
Low voltage circuit
• X-ray tube with cathode and anode
• Step down transformer to supply low voltage high
current to the ...
17
• The tube current and the x-rays are generated only
during the half-cycle when the anode is positive
• A machine operatin...
Voltage Rectification
• To solve the problem during inverse voltage cycle:
– when anode is negative relative to cathode, n...
Half wave rectification
•Rectifiers placed in series in
the high voltage part of the
circuit prevents conduction
during in...
Full wave rectification
•Four rectifiers arranged in
the high voltage part of the
circuit so that cathode is
negative and ...
Physics of X-ray Production
• Produced by two different mechanisms and give rise
to:
– Bremsstrahlung x-rays
– Characteris...
Bremsstrahlung X-rays
• Results from collision of high speed electron over a
nucleus
• Electron with its electromagnetic r...
• In megavoltage x-ray tubes , the electrons bombard
the target from one side and the x-ray beam is
obtained on the other ...
Characteristic X-rays
• An electron with kinetic energy interacts with the
atom of the target by ejecting an orbital elect...
Critical Absorption Energy
It is the threshold energy that an incident electron must
possess in order to first strip an el...
X-ray Energy Spectra
• X-ray photons produced by the x-ray machine are
heterogenous in energy
• Spectrum shows a continuou...
Spectral distribution of x-rays for tungsten target
with no filtration and with filtration of 1mm
aluminum

28
Factors Affecting X-ray Production
• The output of an x-ray tube is often described by the
terms:
– Quality : the penetrab...
• The factors affecting those characteristics of x-rays
are:
–
–
–
–

Anode target material
Tube voltage
Tube current
Beam...
• Anode target material:
– Incident electrons are more likely to have radiative
interactions in higher-Z materials
– The e...
• Tube voltage (kV)
– determines the maximum energy in the bremsstrahlung
spectrum and affects the quality of the output s...
• Beam filtration:
– modifies the quantity and quality of the x-ray beam by
absorbing the low-energy photons in the spectr...
Thank you

34
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Production of x rays

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Production of x rays

  1. 1. PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS By Dr. Deepa Gautam 1st yr Resident ,Radiotherapy 1
  2. 2. History • Wilhelm Conrad von Roentgen 2
  3. 3. • Born in Lennep, Germany in 1845 • Studied in Zurich, Switzerland • Appointed as professor of physics at Giessen(1879) and at Wurttemberg(1888) • In 1895, while investigating cathode rays, he noted a new ray with greater penetrating power coming from cathode of a vacuum tube, not deflected by magnetic fields, and named it as X-rays(unknown rays) 3
  4. 4. • Announced his finding about X-rays before the Wurttemberg society(1895) • Received Nobel prize in 1901 • Died at Munich on February 10, 1923, from carcinoma of the intestine. 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. The very first X-ray image of human body taken which was of Wilhelm Conrad von Roentgen’s wife’s hand with ring. 6
  7. 7. Dr. Charles L. Leonard(1903) • Demonstrated the power of Roentgen rays to alter the characters of malignant cells , prevent spread and development 7
  8. 8. X-ray Tube Consists of: •Glass envelope which is evacuated to high vacuum •Cathode(-) with tungsten filament and focusing cup •Anode(+) with tungsten target 8
  9. 9. The Cathode • Tungsten filament (atomic number 74 and high melting point of 3370oC) when heated emits electrons(thermionic emission) • Focusing cup directs electrons towards the anode so that they strike the focal spot • Diagnostic tubes have dual focus filaments separately for small and large focal spots 9
  10. 10. The Anode • Tungsten target with high melting point to withstand intense heat produced by electronic bombardment • Copper anode for removing the heat from target where it is cooled by oil , water or air (rotating anodes to reduce the temperature in diagnostic x-rays) • Copper hood for preventing the electrons from striking the walls • Focal Spot : target from where x-rays are emitted ( should be smaller for diagnostic purpose and larger acceptable for therapeutic purpose) 10
  11. 11. Principle of Line focus: helps in adjusting the size of focal spot •A is the side of the actual focal spot • a is the apparent side of focal spot, then •a=A SinӨ •Hence making the target angle Ө small, we can reduce the size of apparent focal spot •Ө is 6 -17o for diagnostic tube and about 30o for therapeutic tube 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Heel effect • X-rays produced at various depth in the target vary in amount of attenuation , greater attenuation for those coming from depth • Intensity of x-ray beam decreases from cathode to anode direction • These variations can be minimized by using compensating filters 13
  14. 14. Basic X-ray Circuit • Divided into: – the high-voltage circuit to provide the accelerating potential for the electrons – the low-voltage circuit to supply heating current to the filament • the filament temperature controls the current in the circuit due to the flow of electrons across the tube and hence the x-ray intensity 14
  15. 15. High voltage circuit • X-ray tube with cathode and anode • Step-up transformer to supply high voltage and low current to x-ray tube • Autotransformer for stepwise adjustment in voltage • Voltage selector switch for selecting the turn of a coil in autotransformer • Rheostat to introduce desired resistance in the circuit and vary the voltage in continuous manner • Voltmeter for recording voltage to the x-ray tube • Milliammeter for recording the tube current 15
  16. 16. Low voltage circuit • X-ray tube with cathode and anode • Step down transformer to supply low voltage high current to the filament for electron emission • Choke coil filament control to control the current from the main power line to the filament 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. • The tube current and the x-rays are generated only during the half-cycle when the anode is positive • A machine operating in this manner is called the self-rectified unit. 18
  19. 19. Voltage Rectification • To solve the problem during inverse voltage cycle: – when anode is negative relative to cathode, no x-rays produced – When target gets hot and emits electrons which will flow from anode to cathode, bombard cathode filament and destroy it • Can be done in two ways: – Half wave rectification – Full wave rectification 19
  20. 20. Half wave rectification •Rectifiers placed in series in the high voltage part of the circuit prevents conduction during inverse voltage cycle •Two types of high voltage rectifiers: •Valve state type •Solid state type 20
  21. 21. Full wave rectification •Four rectifiers arranged in the high voltage part of the circuit so that cathode is negative and anode is positive in both cycles •Electrons flow from filament to target in both cycles •In fig, electronic current flows through the tube via ABCDEFGH when transformer end A is –ve and via HGCDEFBA when A is +ve 21
  22. 22. Physics of X-ray Production • Produced by two different mechanisms and give rise to: – Bremsstrahlung x-rays – Characteristic x-rays 22
  23. 23. Bremsstrahlung X-rays • Results from collision of high speed electron over a nucleus • Electron with its electromagnetic radiation when passes in the vicinity of nucleus , it suffers a sudden deflection (Coulomb forces of attraction) and acceleration • Part or all of the energy of the electron is dissipated from it and propagates in space as electromagnetic radiation 23
  24. 24. • In megavoltage x-ray tubes , the electrons bombard the target from one side and the x-ray beam is obtained on the other side. • In the low voltage x-ray tubes, it is advantageous to obtain the x-ray beam on the same side of the target. 24
  25. 25. Characteristic X-rays • An electron with kinetic energy interacts with the atom of the target by ejecting an orbital electron • Vacancy is filled by an outer electron with emission of electromagnetic radiation • Eo(kinetic energy of incident electron), ∆E(energy given to the orbital electron a part of which is spent in overcoming the binding energy) and Eo-E∆ is the energy of incident electron after collision 25
  26. 26. Critical Absorption Energy It is the threshold energy that an incident electron must possess in order to first strip an electron from the atom 26
  27. 27. X-ray Energy Spectra • X-ray photons produced by the x-ray machine are heterogenous in energy • Spectrum shows a continuous distribution of energy (bremsstrahlung) superimposed by discrete energies (characteristic) • With no filtration, inherent or added, the calculated energy will be a straight line and given by • IE=KZ(Em-E) where IE is the intensity of photons with energy E, Z is the atomic number of target, Em is the maximum photon energy and K is the constant 27
  28. 28. Spectral distribution of x-rays for tungsten target with no filtration and with filtration of 1mm aluminum 28
  29. 29. Factors Affecting X-ray Production • The output of an x-ray tube is often described by the terms: – Quality : the penetrability of an x-ray beam – Quantity : the number of photons comprising the beam – Efficiency : the ratio of output energy as x-rays to input energy deposited by electrons 29
  30. 30. • The factors affecting those characteristics of x-rays are: – – – – Anode target material Tube voltage Tube current Beam filtration 30
  31. 31. • Anode target material: – Incident electrons are more likely to have radiative interactions in higher-Z materials – The energies of characteristic x-rays produced in the target depend on the target material – The efficiency of bremsstrahlung radiation production is roughly proportional to atomic number – Thus the target material affects the quantity and efficiency of bremsstrahlung photons and the quality of the characteristic radiation 31
  32. 32. • Tube voltage (kV) – determines the maximum energy in the bremsstrahlung spectrum and affects the quality of the output spectrum – also affects the efficiency of bremsstralung x-rays (Efficiency=9x10-10ZV) • Tube current (mA) – proportional to the number of electrons flowing from the cathode to the anode per unit time 32
  33. 33. • Beam filtration: – modifies the quantity and quality of the x-ray beam by absorbing the low-energy photons in the spectrum – reduces the number of photons (quantity) and increases the average energy, also increasing the quality 33
  34. 34. Thank you 34
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