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Issues and Approaches in New Media
 

Issues and Approaches in New Media

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Presentation for in class assessment. Computers as Culture. ARIN6903, Uni of Sydney.

Presentation for in class assessment. Computers as Culture. ARIN6903, Uni of Sydney.

Summary of Reading by Tony Flew

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  • Brief Outline of this session
  • Flew Lists some of the wilder claims about this new media boom.
  • For every hype there’s an equal and opposite counter hype against it
  • There are approaches to seek to escape from under the hype (optimistic) and counter hype (pessimistic) to develop media theory research that present a more moderate view of technological and cultural change is not without its challenges and Flew presents potential roadblocks to that development.
  • Frew goes on to identify the current thinking/approaches to the study of technological change. One being Technological Determinism… in that societal change is driven by technology.
  • Agree or Disagree???On the face of it the premise of this statement, seems ludicrous. The situation is that a young girl in the UK took an overdose of pills as a result of bullying from her peers via facebook who’s to blame?
  • In actual fact the headline was somewhat misleading, the archbishop goes on to discuss some of the elements of facebook or social media type relationships and raises the following concernsAgree or Disagree?
  • This is some of the comment by readers on the issues outlined by the ArchbishopAgree or Disagree? Anything to Add?
  • This is the reflection of the commentary by Ben Parr at Mashable where I first came across the article, what do you think??
  • Anybody?
  • on the face of it the premise of this statement, seems ludicrous. The situation is that a young girl in the UK took an overdose of pills as a result of bullying from her peers via facebook and there are a number of commentators who would state that the technology (facebook) isn’t the cause, it’s a tool at the hands of a bigger problem of kids who bully. It’s interesting to look at the comments raised by readers
  • OfOf the people who met up with > 5 all were organising class/school reunions.
  • I have no hard data to that effect but I’m interested to see if that thought is borne out in the course of our discussions!

Issues and Approaches in New Media Issues and Approaches in New Media Presentation Transcript

  • Plus Ça Change
    ‘Issues and Approaches New Media’
    By Denise Teal
  • Outline
    Summary of the Reading Approaches to New Media by Tony Flew.
    How do culture and technology influence each other?
    In the News – Archbishop’s comments on Social Media
    Discussion
  • Beyond Hype and Counter-Hype
    “computing is not about computers any more, it’s about living” Negroponte, Being Digital 1995
    “we are in the middle of the most transforming technological event since the capture of fire ” Barlow
    “force for freedom and individualism, culture and morality” Gilder
    “the land of knowledge and the exploration of that land can be civilisation’s truest and highest calling” Tofler
  • Beyond Hype and Counter-hype
    To judge by the overheated tributes to computer technology that have become increasingly common in the press... one would be led to conclude that the Internet is the most important invention since fire, [and] that a laptop computer dwarfs the automobile in its societal impact… My advice to the somewhat overly enthusiastic technophiles... is simple: Get a grip.
    Michael Hammer as quoted by Robert B. Seidensticker in Future Hype, 2005
  • Beyond Hype and Counter-hype
    The kind of research and theoretical tradition used.
    Empirical new media tends to be a research practice of those seeking to manage change rather than effect it.
    The recurring significance of optimism as a form of myth that needs not only to be unmasked but also learned from.
  • Approaches to technological change
    Technological Determinism.
    According to technological determinists, particular technical developments, communications technologies or media, or, most broadly, technology in general are the sole or prime antecedent causes of changes in society, and technology is seen as the fundamental condition underlying the pattern of social organization Chandler, Daniel (1995): 'Technological or Media Determinism’ URL http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/tecdet/tecdet.html [2/8/09]
  • Approaches to technological change
    Technological Determinism cont.
    the partial truth of technological determinism is this, that “once particular technologies are widely adopted and used, they acquire a degree of lock-in that shapes society in a wider sense”. Flew (2008)
  • Approaches to technological change
    Social Shaping of Technology
    Points to the need to analyse ‘the socio-economic patterns embedded in both
    the content of technologies and…
    …the process of innovation
  • Approaches to technological change
    Social Shaping of Technology
    Diffusion of Innovations Model
    Seeks to model the adoption and spread of innovation through communication via particular channels over time.
    Focuses on social uptake of new tech and has a pro-innovation bias (Rogers, 2003)
  • Approaches to technological change
    Social Shaping of Technology
    Political Economy Model
    Focuses more on the politics and power relations embedded in technological development.
  • Approaches to technological change
    Social Shaping of Technology
    Theories of Culture and Technology
    Says that technologies are … processes that structure the world in particular ways.
    Seeks not to separate technology and the social into separate domains.
  • Social Psychology: Identity and Interpersonal Relations online
    Social Psychology of new media or Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) has generated strong interest in…
    How to best target marketing
    Managing concerns about access
    New forms of community, sociality and identity formation
  • Social Psychology: Identity and Interpersonal Relations online
    Early speculations about CMC.
    Rheingold – seeing possibility of reinvigorated sense of community and citizen participation in public life. (1994)
    Turkle stated that through identity and play within CMC “…people are increasingly comfortable with substituting representations of reality for the real” (1995)
    Flew goes on to demonstrate that time passing moderated opinions in favour of more empirically based assessments.
  • Technology and Culture
    Significance of culture as “communication mediated through technologies” appears as we compare the three levels of defining of ‘technology’
    Physical objects, tools, artifacts
    Content – software, defined by its use.
    Systems of knowledge and social meaning
    With the three levels of defining of ‘culture’
    Culture with the arts and aesthetics
    As in ‘way of life’, lived experience, community, social groups
    Underlying structural system
  • Political Economy and Cultural Studies
    Political economy approaches to new media start from a perspective of economic and industrial dynamics, focusing on the extent to which access to resources influences directions new media developments take
    Access to investment capital
    Access to political influence
    Access to technologies themselves
    This approach is skeptical that new media has led to fundamental changes in socio economic structures.
  • Political Economy and Cultural Studies
    Cultural Studies approaches to new media start from communications and culture
    The relationship between producers and users.
    The communication going from one to many to many to many causes the producers to renegotiate the relationship which brings change.
    Tends to be more positive about the transformative potential of new media.
  • How do culture and technology influence each other?
    Facebook and MySpace can lead children to commit suicide, warns Archbishop Nichols
    Wynne Jones, Daily Telegraph
  • How do culture and technology influence each other?
    the sites are leading teenagers to build "transient relationships" which leave them unable to cope when their social networks collapse.
    relationships are already being weakened by the decline in face-to-face meetings and conversations over the phone
    as a society we're losing some of the ability to build interpersonal communication that's necessary for living together and building a community.
    "If we mean by community a genuine growing together and a mutual sharing in an interest that is of some significance then it needs more than Facebook.
  • How do culture and technology influence each other?
    Social media is becoming a replacement for social engagement and this is a bad trend.
    social networking has made the already existing problems more visible
    Responsible use of Social Media - that should be the idea.
    There are key interpersonal lessons not learned when relying on social media,
  • How do culture and technology influence each other?
    The issue isn’t the medium in which the harassment occurred, but the harassment itself.
    Ben Parr, Mashable
  • How do culture and technology influence each other?
    Question:
    Has Social Media augmented or diminished your IRL (in real life) social interactions?
  • How do culture and technology influence each other?
    Straw Poll on Facebook:
    Of the old, old friends you've reconnected with on Facebook... how many of them have you since met up with in person?
    If you have not met up, do you plan to in the future?
  • How do culture and technology influence each other?
    Would meet -distance prevents – 4
    Would not meet up – 3
    Have met up with >5 will do so more – 4
    Met up with one or two – 8
    Only really keep up with existing friendships from that period – 2
  • Conclusions
    Plus ça change, ces’t plus la même chose.
    The more things change, the more they stay the same.
  • References
    Future Hype: The Myths of Technology Changeby Robert B. Seidensticker2005, Berrett-Koehler Publishers (San Francisco, CA)
    Facebook and MySpace can lead children to commit suicide, warns Archbishop Nichols Jonathan Wynne-Jones, Daily TelegraphPublished: 9:45PM BST 01 Aug 2009http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/religion/5956719/Facebook-and-MySpace-can-lead-children-to-commit-suicide-warns-Archbishop-Nichols.html
  • References
    Facebook Leads to Suicide, Warns UK Head of Roman Catholic Church, Ben Parr, Mashable August 2nd 2009 http://mashable.com/2009/08/02/suicide-facebook-catholic-church/