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13-1 Bateman   SnellManagement         Competing                   in the                   New Era                       ...
13-2   Part Four   Chapter 13 - Motivating for Performance   Chapter Outline         Setting the Stage - Motivation at Lin...
13-3   Learning Objectives   After      studying Chapter 13, you will know:        the kinds of behaviors managers need ...
13-4         Motivating For Performance   Motivation        forcesthat energize, direct, and sustain a person’ efforts  ...
13-5       Behaviors That Companies Want           Employees To Exhibit                                Join the           ...
13-6                                 Setting Goals   Goal      setting theory        people  have conscious goals that e...
13-7            Reinforcing Performance   Law    of effect        behavior that is followed by positive consequences pro...
13-8       Reinforcing Performance (cont.)   Consequences         of behavior        positive reinforcement - applying v...
13-9       The Consequences Of Behavior                  Positive reinforcement                        Same behavior      ...
13-10          Performance-Related Beliefs   Expectancy       theory         proposesthat people will behave based on th...
13-11         Performance-Related Beliefs                   (cont.)   Expectancy         theory (cont.)         manageri...
13-12        Basic Concepts Of Expectancy                  Theory         Effort                Performance               ...
13-13        Understanding People’s Needs   Content       theories         indicate the kinds of needs that people want ...
13-14        Understanding People’s Needs                   (cont.)   Maslow’s         need hierarchy (cont.)         po...
13-15        Understanding People’s Needs                   (cont.)   Alderfer’s     ERG theory         postulates   tha...
13-16        Comparison Of Maslow’s Need         Hierarchy And ERG Theory                             act                 ...
13-17        Understanding Poeple’s Needs                   (cont.)   McClelland’s               needs         achieveme...
13-18            Designing Motivating Jobs   Rewards       may be available from the nature of the job         extrinsic...
13-19   Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)   Job    rotation         changing     from one routine task to another to all...
13-20   Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)   Herzberg’s           two-factor theory         distinguishedbetween two broa...
13-21   Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)   The    Hackman and Oldham model of job design         well   designed jobs p...
13-22   Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)   The    Hackman and Oldham model of job design (cont.)         effectivejob e...
13-23   The Hackman And Oldham Model           Of Job Design                                  Critical        Core Job    ...
13-24   Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.)   Empowerment         processof sharing power with employees         enhances...
13-25                Actions That Empower                     Employees                         Increase                  ...
13-26                       Achieving Fairness   Equity      theory         people               assess how fairly they ...
13-27            Achieving Fairness (cont.)   Restoring         equity         inequity causes dissatisfaction and leads...
13-28            Achieving Fairness (cont.)   Fair    process         procedural  justice - using a fair process in deci...
13-29                       Job Satisfaction   Correlates      of job satisfaction         job satisfaction is unrelated...
13-30                    Job Satisfaction (cont.)   Quality         of work life (QWL)         programs  designed to cre...
13-31          Categories Of Quality Of Life                                                              Safe and        ...
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MEN MANAGEMENT

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  1. 1. 13-1 Bateman SnellManagement Competing in the New Era 5th Edition Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 13-2 Part Four Chapter 13 - Motivating for Performance Chapter Outline Setting the Stage - Motivation at Lincoln Electric Motivating for Performance Setting Goals Reinforcing Performance Performance-Related Beliefs Understanding People’s Needs Designing Motivating Jobs Achieving Fairness Job Satisfaction Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. 13-3 Learning Objectives After studying Chapter 13, you will know:  the kinds of behaviors managers need to motivate in people  how to set challenging, motivating goals  how to reward good performance  the key beliefs that affect people’s motivation  the ways in which people’s individual needs affect their behavior  how to create a motivating, empowering job  how people assess fairness  the causes and consequences of a satisfied workforce Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. 13-4 Motivating For Performance Motivation  forcesthat energize, direct, and sustain a person’ efforts  highly motivated people, with adequate ability and understanding of the job, will be highly productive  managers must know what behaviors they want to motivate people to exhibit Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. 13-5 Behaviors That Companies Want Employees To Exhibit Join the organization Exhibit good Companies Remain in the citizenship must organization motivate workers to: Achieve high Come to work output regularly Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 13-6 Setting Goals Goal setting theory  people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward one end Goals that motivate  goals should be acceptable to employees  goals should be challenging but attainable  goals should be specific, quantifiable, and measurable Limitations of goal setting  individualized goals create competition and reduce cooperation  single productivity goals interfere with other dimensions of performance Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. 13-7 Reinforcing Performance Law of effect  behavior that is followed by positive consequences probably will be repeated Reinforcers  positive consequences that motivate behavior Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod)  application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings  influences people’s behavior and improves performance by systematically managing work conditions and the consequences of people’s actions Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. 13-8 Reinforcing Performance (cont.) Consequences of behavior  positive reinforcement - applying valued consequences that increase the likelihood that a person will repeat the behavior that led to it  negative reinforcement - removing or withholding an undesirable consequence can involve the threat of punishment  punishment - administering an aversive consequence  extinction - withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence Sometimes the wrong behaviors are reinforced Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 13-9 The Consequences Of Behavior Positive reinforcement Same behavior or likely to be negative reinforcement repeated Behavior Punishment Same behavior or less likely to be extinction repeated Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. 13-10 Performance-Related Beliefs Expectancy theory  proposesthat people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome expectancy - employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals instrumentality - perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome valence - value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it  formotivation to be high, expectancy, instrumentalities, and total valence of all outcomes must all be high Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. 13-11 Performance-Related Beliefs (cont.) Expectancy theory (cont.)  managerial implications of expectancy theory increase expectancies identify positively valent outcomes make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. 13-12 Basic Concepts Of Expectancy Theory Effort Performance Outcome Expectancy Instrumentality Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. 13-13 Understanding People’s Needs Content theories  indicate the kinds of needs that people want to satisfy  the extent to which and the ways in which a person’s needs are met or not met affect her/his behavior on the job Maslow’s need hierarchy  human needs are organized into five major types physiological - food, water, sex, and shelter safety or security - protection against threat and deprivation social - friendship, affection, belonging, and love ego - independence, achievement, freedom, recognition, and self-esteem self-actualization - realizing one’s potential Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. 13-14 Understanding People’s Needs (cont.) Maslow’s need hierarchy (cont.)  postulates that people satisfy these needs one at a time, from bottom to top people motivated to satisfy lower needs before they try to satisfy higher needs once satisfied, a need is no longer a powerful motivator  notaltogether accurate theory of human motivation  nonetheless, made three major contributions identifiedimportant need categories helped to think in terms of lower- and higher-level needs increased salience of personal growth and self-actualization Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. 13-15 Understanding People’s Needs (cont.) Alderfer’s ERG theory  postulates that people have three basic need sets Existenceneeds - material and physiological desires Relatedness needs - involve relationships with other people Growth needs - motivate people to productivity or creativity  postulates that several different needs can be operating at once  has greater scientific support than Maslow’s hierarchy boththeories remind managers of the types of reinforcers or rewards that can be used to motivate people Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. 13-16 Comparison Of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy And ERG Theory act Se zation ual lf- i h Eg Growt o So c ia l Ph Sa fe Relatedness ys ty io lo gi r ca rfe l Alde Existence Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. 13-17 Understanding Poeple’s Needs (cont.) McClelland’s needs  achievement - strong orientation toward accomplishment, and obsession with success and goal attainment  affiliation - strong desire to be liked by other people  power - desire to influence or control other people personalized power - negative force  expressed through the manipulation and exploitation of others socialized power - channeled toward the constructive improvement of organizations and societies Need theories: International perspectives  need importance varies from country to country  not all people are motivated by the same needs Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. 13-18 Designing Motivating Jobs Rewards may be available from the nature of the job  extrinsic reinforcers - reinforcement provided to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person  intrinsic reward - derived directly from performing the job itself essential to the motivation underlying creativity  the result of a challenging problem  the result of work that is exciting in and of itself  ‘mechanistic’approach to job design - characterizes a demotivating job highly specialized, simple and routine results in employee dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and turnover Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. 13-19 Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.) Job rotation  changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom can benefit everyone when done properly Job enlargement  giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom additional tasks at the same level of responsibility Job enrichment  changinga task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying adds higher levels of responsibility2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright ©
  20. 20. 13-20 Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.) Herzberg’s two-factor theory  distinguishedbetween two broad categories of factors that affect people working on their jobs hygiene factors - characteristics of the workplace  make people unhappy  will not make people truly satisfied motivators - characteristics of the job itself  when present, jobs presumed to be both satisfying and motivating  theory has been widely criticized  nevertheless, highlights the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards reminds managers that worker motivation depends on more than extrinsic rewards Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. 13-21 Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.) The Hackman and Oldham model of job design  well designed jobs produce three critical psychological states meaningfulness - believe that work is important to other people responsibility - feel personally responsible for how the work turns out knowledge of results - know how well the job was performed  psychological states produced by five core job dimensions skillvariety - different job activities involving several skills task identity - completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work task significance - important impact on the lives of others autonomy - independence and discretion in making decisions feedback - information about job performance Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. 13-22 Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.) The Hackman and Oldham model of job design (cont.)  effectivejob enrichment increases all five core dimensions  effectiveness of a job enrichment program depends on a person’s growth need strength growth need strength - degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. 13-23 The Hackman And Oldham Model Of Job Design Critical Core Job Outcomes Psychological Characteristics States Skill Variety Meaningfulness High Internal Task Identity of Work Motivation Task Significance High Growth Responsibility for Autonomy Satisfaction Work Outcomes Feedback Knowledge of High Job From Job Results Satisfaction MODERATORS Knowledge and Skill Growth Need Strength Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. 13-24 Designing Motivating Jobs (cont.) Empowerment  processof sharing power with employees  enhances beliefs about being influential contributors employees perceive meaning in work employees feel competent employees derive a sense of self-determination employees believe they have an impact on important decisions  empowering environment providesinformation required to perform at one’s best knowledge available about how to use the information  employees have the power to make decisions employees receive rewards for contributions Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. 13-25 Actions That Empower Employees Increase Reduce the signature authority number of rules at all levels Reduce the Assign number of nonroutine approval steps Specific jobs Actions To Provide more Empower Allow freedom of access independent to people judgment Provide more Define jobs freedom of access more broadly as to resources projects Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. 13-26 Achieving Fairness Equity theory  people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors outcomes - various things the person receives on the job inputs - contributions the person makes to the organization  people expect the outcomes they receive to be proportional to the inputs they provide people also pay attention to the outcomes and inputs of others Assessing equity Outcomes Outcomes Their own versus Others Inputs Inputs equityexists when the ratios are equal assessments of equity are subjective perceptions or beliefs Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. 13-27 Achieving Fairness (cont.) Restoring equity  inequity causes dissatisfaction and leads to attempts to restore balance to the relationship  a variety of behavioral and perceptual options may be used to restore equity alter Person’s ratio  reduce inputs - give less effort, perform at lower levels, quit  increase outcomes - request higher grade, better pay alter Other’s ratio  decrease outcomes  increase inputs Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. 13-28 Achieving Fairness (cont.) Fair process  procedural justice - using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible  fair processes make unfair outcomes more palatable explain how a decision is made make an unbiased decision offer a chance to voice complaints collaborate in making decision Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. 13-29 Job Satisfaction Correlates of job satisfaction  job satisfaction is unrelated to job performance  the greater the job dissatisfaction: the higher turnover the higher absenteeism the lower corporate citizenship the more grievances and lawsuits the higher the probability of a strike the more likely that stealing and/or vandalism will occur the poorer the mental and physical health of the workers Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. 13-30 Job Satisfaction (cont.) Quality of work life (QWL)  programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well-being  organizations differ drastically in their attention to QWL Psychological contracts a set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them hasimportant implications for employee satisfaction/motivation Benefits provided by Contributions provided the organization by the employee Benefits promised by versus Contributions promised the organization by the employee Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. 13-31 Categories Of Quality Of Life Safe and Adequate and fair healthy compensation environment Socially responsible Jobs develop organizational human actions Quality capacities of Work Minimum infringe- Life Chance for personal ments on personal growth and security and family needs Supportive Constitutionalism social environment Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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