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Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases
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Acids and Bases

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  • 1. Acids and Bases<br />
  • 2. Acids are substances that ionize in aqueous solutions to form hydrogen ions, thereby increasing the concentration of H+ (aq) ions<br />Common acids – HCL, HNO3, and HC2H3O2<br />Acids are often referred to as proton donors<br />Monoprotic acids – yields oneH+ per molecule of acid <br />Examples – HCL and HNO3<br />Diprotic acids – yields two H+ per molecule of acid<br />Examples – H2SO4<br />Remember that the ionization of diprotic acids occur in two steps<br />H2SO4 (aq)  H+ (aq) + HSO4- (aq)<br />HSO4- (aq)  H+ (aq) + SO42- (aq)<br />Polyprotic acids – have more than one ionizable H atom<br />Acids - Arrhenius<br />
  • 3. Bases are substances that accept (react with) H+ ions.<br />Bases produce hydroxide ions (OH)- when they dissolve in water<br />Common bases – NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2<br />When dissolved in water, bases dissociate into their component ions, introducing OH- ions into the solution<br />Don’t forget – compounds that do not contain OH- ions can also be bases (i.e. NH3 is a base)<br />NH3 (aq) + H2O (l)  NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)<br />Bases – Arrhenius<br />
  • 4. Acids and bases that are strong electrolytes (completely ionized in solution) are called strong acids and strong bases<br />Acids and bases that are weak electrolytes (partly ionized in solution) are called weak acids and weak bases<br />Strong acids are more reactive than weak acids<br />Common strong acids – HCL, HBr, HI<br />Common strong bases – LiOH, NaOH, KOH<br />Common weak acids – HF<br />Common weak bases – NH3<br />Strong and Weak Acids and Bases<br />
  • 5. The name of an acid is related to the name of its anion<br />Rules<br />Acids based on anions whose name en in –ate or –ite. Anions whose names end in –ate have associated acids with an –ic ending, whereas anions whose names end in –ite have acids with an-ous ending. Prefixes in the name of the anion are retained in the name of the acids.<br />Anion - ClO- (hypochlorite) Corresponding Acid - HClO (hypochlorous acid<br />Anion – ClO4- (perchlorate) Corresponding Acid – HClO4 (perchloric acid)<br />Acids based on anions whose names end in –ide. Anions whose names end in –ide have associated acids that have the hydro- prefix and an –ic ending<br />Anion – Cl- (chloride) Corresponding Acid – HCl (hydrochloric acid)<br />Names and Formulas of Acids<br />
  • 6. Based on the fact that acid-base reactions involve the transfer of H+ ions from one substance to another<br />Defined acids and bases in terms of their ability to transfer protons<br />An acid is a substance (molecule or ion) that can donate a proton to another substance; a molecule or ion must have a hydrogen atom that it can lose as an H+ ion<br />Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases<br />Image provided by: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Acids_and_Bases/Acid/Bronsted_Concept_of_Acids_and_Bases<br />
  • 7. A base is a substance that can accept a proton; a molecule or ion must have a nonbonding pair of electrons that it can use to bind the H+ ion<br />An acid and a base always work together to transfer a proton<br />Some substances can act as an acid in one reaction and as a base in another – called amphoteric<br />Acts as a base when combined with something more strongly acidic than itself, and as an acid when combined with something more strongly basic than itself<br />Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases<br />
  • 8. Because the molar concentration of H+ (aq) in an aqueous solution is usually very small, we usually express [H+] in terms of pH, which is the negative logarithm in base 10 of [H+]<br />pH = -log[H+] <br />A solution is neutral if [H+] = [OH-]<br />Don’t forget your constants that can help calculate pH and concentrations<br />Kw (ion-product) for water = 1.0 x 10-14 (at 25oC) <br />Ka (acid-dissociation) – the larger the Ka value, the stronger the acid<br />Kb (base-dissociation) – refers the equilibrium in which a base reacts with water to form the corresponding conjugate acid and OH-<br />The product of the acid-dissociation constant for an acid and the base-dissociation constant for its conjugate base is the ion-product constant for water (Ka x Kb = Kw)<br />Measuring pH:<br />pH meter, <br />acid-base indicators – colored substance that itself can exist in either an acid or a base form; have different colors, indicator turns one color in an acid and another color in a base<br />The pH Scale<br />
  • 9. Emphasizes the shared electron pair (remember you Lewis structures)<br />Lewis acid – electron-pair acceptor<br />Lewis base – electron-pair donor<br />Lewis Acids and Bases<br />Image provided by: http://facultyfp.salisbury.edu/dfrieck/htdocs/212/rev/acidbase/lewis.htm<br />
  • 10. References<br />

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