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Activity diagram tutorial

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Introduction to using activity diagrams to model use cases visually.

Introduction to using activity diagrams to model use cases visually.

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  • 1. UsingActivityDiagrams toModel Use Cases Visually
    by Declan Chellar
  • 2.
  • 3. START POINT
  • 4. TheStart Point representstheevent that triggersthe use case.
  • 5. I like to labelStartPoints.
  • 6. Actor elects to AddCustomer
  • 7. Actor elects to AddCustomer
    Althoughthis is notstandardpractise.
  • 8. END POINT
  • 9. To reachtheEnd Point…
  • 10. … you need to model STEPS.
  • 11. Link thestepswith TRANSITIONS.
  • 12. Link thestepswith TRANSITIONS.
  • 13. Transitions use arrowheads to show thedirection of processflow.
  • 14. I like to put a note againstanystep that achievesthegoal of the use case.
    Goal X achieved
  • 15. Themostcommonroutefromthestartpoint to theendpoint has manynames.
  • 16. Buttheyeffectively mean thesamething.
  • 17. Combine anywordontheleftwithanyphraseontheright.
    PRIMARY
    PATH
    BASIC
    FLOW
    TYPICAL
    COURSE OF EVENTS
    SCENARIO
  • 18. Often in a use case theSystem has to make a decisionbasedonbusiness rules...
  • 19. DECISION POINT
  • 20. DecisionPointscontaintextwhich describes thenature of thedecision to bemade.
  • 21. Decisionpointsallowtheflow to branchawayfromthePrimaryPath.
  • 22. Transitionscomingout of DecisionPointsmust have a GUARD.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 23. [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
    A Guardneeds to explicitly describe a conditionwhichmustbe true in order to proceeddown that path.
  • 24. IftheflowrejoinsthePrimaryPath, it is known as anAlternatePath.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 25. [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
    WithAlternatePaths, thegoal of the Use Case is stillachieved.
  • 26. There are othernamesforAlternatePaths.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 27. Combine anywordontheleftwithanyphraseontheright.
    ALTERNATE
    PATH
    ALTERNATIVE
    FLOW
    SECONDARY
    COURSE OF EVENTS
    SCENARIO
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 28. [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
    You can show howpathsrejoinbyusing a MERGE POINT.
  • 29. [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
    You can show howpathsrejoinbyusing a MERGE POINT.
  • 30. I don’tlikeMergePointsbecausetheytake up spacewithoutaddingclarity.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 31. I prefer to modelmergingpathslikethis.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 32. MergePoints can sometimesbeparticularlysuperfluous.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 33. [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
    I thinkit is neater to show themergethisway.
  • 34. Iftheflowdoes NOT rejointhePrimaryPath, it is known as anExceptionPath.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
  • 35. WithExceptionPaths, thegoal of the Use Case is NOT achieved.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
  • 36. I like to use colour to highlightthedifferentpaths.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
  • 37. [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
  • 38. [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
  • 39. This makesiteasy to identify test scenarios at a glance.
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition 1]
  • 40. I alsolike to labeltheGuards in order to easilyidentifythepaths.
    A1: [Condition 2]
    E1: [Condition 3]
    P: [Condition 1]
  • 41. And I like to labeltheStepsforeasybackwardreferencefrom Business Rules and a Logical Data Model.
    P1:
    A1: [Condition 2]
    E1: [Condition 3]
    P: [Condition 1]
    P2:
    A1.1:
    E1.1:
  • 42. PrimaryPath: P1, P2.
    P1:
    A1: [Condition 2]
    E1: [Condition 3]
    P: [Condition 1]
    P2:
    A1.1:
    E1.1:
  • 43. PrimaryPath: P1, P2.
    AlternatePath 1: P1, A1.1, P2.
    P1:
    A1: [Condition 2]
    E1: [Condition 3]
    P: [Condition 1]
    P2:
    A1.1:
    E1.1:
  • 44. PrimaryPath: P1, P2.
    AlternatePath 1: P1, A1.1, P2.
    ExceptionPath 1: P1, E1.1.
    P1:
    A1: [Condition 2]
    E1: [Condition 3]
    P: [Condition 1]
    P2:
    A1.1:
    E1.1:
  • 45. In some Use Cases, you willneed to modelparallelsteps
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
  • 46. [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
    X
    A
    B
    In thisexample, steps A and B mustbothstartafterstep X finishes and mustbothfinishbeforethe Use Case ends.
  • 47. [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
    X
    A
    B
    Butwe do notcareabouttheorder in which A and B happen.
  • 48. A and B couldevenhappen at thesame time.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
    X
    A
    B
  • 49. In thisexample, B mustfollow A, butwe do notcarewhen C happens in relation to (A + B).
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
    A
    C
    B
  • 50. In some Use Cases, you willneed to modelrepeatedsteps.
    [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
    A
    B
  • 51. [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
    Foreach X:
    A
    In thisexample, you repeat (A + B) untilthere is no more X.
    B
  • 52. [Condition 2]
    [Condition3]
    [Condition 1]
    Foreach X:
    A
    Forexample, you might do thiswhenaddingpassengers to a holidaybooking.
    B
  • 53. Let’sreviewtheshapes
  • 54. START POINT
    DECISION POINT
    [Condition]
    END POINT
    GUARD
    STEP
    PARALLEL STEPS
    Foreach X:
    TRANSITION
    REPEATED STEPS
  • 55. www.chellar.com/blog

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