Virtual Worlds and Concrete CodesPresentation Transcript
Virtual worlds and concrete codes Deborah Jackson
The refinement of mechanical, technical and scientific instruments have allowed for previously unseen objects, such as galaxies seen through the Hubble telescope, to be revealed. It should follow then that the image would become more authentic and more certain as a result.
The collapse of the (truth of the) image
The idea of authentification is complex because it contains within it not just the status of the image itself, whether it is considered real or false, whether it is seen as the original or the copy and so on but also our relationship to the image as spectators.
Reproduction and Visual Technologies Examining the role of realism in art throughout history helps us to see how images indicate changing ways of seeing the world. The concept of what makes an image realistic has changed throughout history and varies between cultures.
The shift to technologies of mechanical reproduction radically changes the privilege of looking and makes of these images a mass cultural activity. The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction is a 1935 essay by German cultural critic Walter Benjamin
Many styles of modern art that followed the invention of photography defied the tradition of perspective.
Mechanical reproduction changes the meaning and value of an image and, ultimately, the role images play in society.
Virtual Space and Interactive Images
The camera relieves us of the burden of memory. It surveys us like God, and it surveys for us. – John Berger, About Looking
The Value of Images
Changing concepts of ‘the gaze’
Surveillance : “The powers that be” watch everyone else. Sousveillance : Everyone watches everyone else (including watching the watchers). Strong sousveillance : observability extends to mental states as well.
What impact will sousveillance have on the modern psychological construct of the “phenomenal self”? Will human mind become more collective?
Our current situation has evolved to the point where anyone can reliably watch anyone else do most things
Power/Knowledge and Panopticism
How prevalent is the idea of photographic identification? To what extent is the photograph integrated into institutional life? How are these photographs tied to questions of power?
Fixed or mobile closed-circuit television surveillance in public areas.
Stalking by photographers of celebrities.
Hidden camera investigative journalism.
Voyeuristic photography, often accompanied by erotic arousal in the photographer.
During industrial espionage.
During intelligence gathering by police or private investigators.
By political protesters or activists.
By academics such as ethnographic researchers or participant observer sociologists.
As a prank, eg: from a friend's mobile camera phone.
Rhetorics of Surveillance
We have entered into an economy of power that positions us and how we view what we look at. RFID: Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves.
Both films deal with the voyeuristic notion of cinema itself. Peeping Tom (1960), Michael Powell Rear Window (1954) Alfred Hitchcock
Balance and Power: Performance and Surveillance in Video Art Video still, Jordan Crandall, Homefront, (2005)
The impact of ubiquitous observation technology is also very present in recent feature films.
This film draws on the new fascination of surveillance and sousveillance, as new playgrounds of the mass media, as a new market based on narcissism, exhibitionism and voyeurism in a so-called “panoptic” society (pan = everything; optikos = to see).
Augmented Reality Most people have heard about Virtual Reality, and everybody has heard of actual reality. Augmented means... * Greater than before * Increased * Amplified * Improved ... supplementing, enhancing, modifying, improving our reality.
What French social theorist Jean Baudrillard called the simulacra. He argued that a simulacrum is not a copy of the real, but becomes truth in its own right: the hyperreal.
interface between digital and real worlds; user-created internet content and feedback; ; life logging, physical object logging; interoperability, devices and applications life logging, physical object logging; interoperability, and devices and applications.
There are numerous examples from the pioneer days of video art and current practices which attempt to understand the complex relationship between intentional acting for the camera and our (in)voluntary relinquishing of privacy to the cameras of power systems that have an interest in the movement of citizens.
G20 protests, April 2009
"Surveillance" denotes the act of watching from above, whereas "sousveillance" denotes bringing the practice of observation down to human level (ordinary people doing the watching, rather than higher authorities or architectures doing the watching).
Sousveillance: With the growing spread of pervasive digital technologies the public urban space has become open for new forms of both observation and surveillance.