Modernism in Art: An Introduction Week 3Introducing Subjectivity: From Impressionism to Cubism
Modernity and Modernism• defined against notions of tradition• overarching theme was emancipation• new and challenging, disrupting the status quo Picasso Guernica (1937)
From Impressionism to CubismImpressionism is a derivative ofRealism, but was primarilyconcerned with how the artistsaw an object, rather than whatis seen. Cubism is a kind of Realism. It is a conceptual approach to realism in art, which aims to depict the world as it is and not as it seems.
Towards Subjectivity It was no longer important to represent a subject realistically since the invention of photography and cameras becoming increasingly had made this function of art obsoleteCourbet "View from the Window at LePoor Woman of the Village Gras" (circa 1826)Joseph(1866) Nicéphore Niépce.
Subjectivism Subjectivism is the belief that reality is not a firm absolute, but a fluid, plastic, indeterminate realm, which can be altered, in whole or in part, by the consciousness of the perceiver. The subjectivist denies that there is any such thing as ―the truth‖ on a given question, the truth, which corresponds to the facts.
Subjectivity Turning from external reality to examine inner states of consciousness. A trend towards the subjective, experiential, self-referential perspective of the artists.
Subjectivity Form and structure being cast aside if they impeded the implementation of intensely personal vision.
Impressionism Taking their name from Claude Monets Impression, Sunrise, the Impressionists were established in Paris during the 1870s The artists did not record nature as static and unchanging but sought to reflect its constant movement and natural pulse. In a rejection of the age-old principles of academic painting - stillness, symmetry, order, and cleanlinessClaude MonetImpression, soleil levant(Impression, Sunrise) (1873)
The Impressionist painters confronted nature in a very different way from their predecessors. They overturned the very way of seeing the world and challenged the human relationship with reality.MonetThe Cliff at Étretat after the Storm (1885)
Camille le PissarroLe Boulevard Montmartre, effet de nuit (The Boulevard Montmartre atNight) (1897)
Pierre-Auguste Renoir Le Moulin de la Galette 1876 DegasBallet Rehearsal (1874)
Georges Seurat (1859-1891) The Channel at Gravelines, E (1890) Vincent Van Gogh View of Arles (Orchard in Bloom with Poplars) Paul Gauguin (1890) Tahitian Landscape (1893)Impressionism became seminal to variousmovements in painting which followed,including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism.
Subjectivity andpictorial surface wereemphasized at theexpense of illusion.
Manet took Courbets realism one step further, so blurring the boundary between objectivity and subjectivity that painting has never recovered from his quiet revolution. After Impressionism, art can never return to a dependence upon a world that exists "out there"Manet apart from theLe Déjeuner sur lHerbe individual artist.(1863)
Impressionism demonstrated that realistic representation of nature was no longer a necessary or sufficient goal in a painting.BERTHE MORISOT PAUL CÉZANNESummer day (1879) Mount Sainte-Victoire view from Lauves MARY CASSATT (1904-06) Summertime (1894)
What were the aims and achievements of impressionism?It has been suggested that impressionism was a ‗primitive‘ way oflooking at the world, that impressionists chose to ‗forget‘ their opticalart school training and – line, perspective, colour – and paint ‗simplyas they saw‘Has been regarded as vivid glimpses of emotion and emotionallycharged objects that represent only the artist‘s own subjectivity – notthe object itselfIt has been suggested that impressionists eliminated culturalinfluence (particularly artistic conventions), but that it is not whollypossible since no one can completely escape culture influence
What were the aims and achievements of impressionism?It has been asserted that Impressionism did not allow culturalconventions to rule their art and that they made a conscious effort torender the object as it actually appears at a specific momentIt has been argued that impressionism represents the artist‘ssubjectivity, but does not simply represent the artist‘s emotionalresponse to an object – instead, subject and object are linked, andtheir relationship is uniquely contextualised , a individual experiencethat connects subject, object, and surrounding circumstances in aninterdependent event
Manet A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (1882)This painting literally captivates/captures the you — in the relationbetween your position and gaze, the girl and the mirror.Manet has understood the meaning of selfhood: it is to be situatedin negotation with other subjects within modes of representation.
Post-Impressionism ―As philosophy had moved from unity to a fragmentation, this fragmentation was carried into the field of painting. The fragmentation shown in Post Impressionist paintings was parallel to the loss of hope for a unity of knowledge in philosophy. It was not just a new technique in painting. It expressed a new worldview.‖Van GoghStarry Night Over the Rhone (Francis Schaeffer, How Should We(1883) Then Live? Francis Schaeffer p.197)
―For a century that questioned the very concept of absolute truth, Cubism created an artistic language of intentional ambiguity.‖ (Robert Rosenbloom Cubism & Twentieth Century Art, p.9)PicassoLes Demoiselles dAvignon(1907)
CubismCubism is a kind of Realism.It is a conceptual approachto realism in art, which aimsto depict the world as it isand not as it seems. Thiswas the "idea." Picasso Still Life with Compote and Glass (1914-15)
CubismThe Cubists reacted against the passion Gauguin, in an indirect fashion, was aand expressionistic violence of Van powerful influence in the formation ofGogh Cubism
Musée dEthnographie du Trocadero Cezanne Les cinq baigneuses (The Bathers) (1906)