Modernism in Art: an Introduction Course Content1. Salon des Refusés: Breaking with the Academy2. Flirting with controversy: Courbet and taboo in 19th-century Europe3. Introducing Subjectivity: From Impressionism to Cubism4. Picasso‟s Exorcism: fear of „Primitives‟ and „Prostitutes‟5. “Standing on the World‟s Summit”: Futurism‟s becoming…6. Revolution and Rebuilding: Constructivism, De Stijl and the Bauhaus7. Dada and Surrealism8. Reflections upon a Modern World (An Introduction to some key thinkers)9. Abstract Expressionism and the Rise of Formalism10. In Jeopardy: Idealism, Authenticity, Universality and the Avant- Garde11. Unseen assessment and credit essay workshop.
Paul Cézanne Pablo PicassoStill Life with Fruit Dish (1879–80) The Reservoir, Horta de Ebro (1909)
Cezanne’s early style was the complete opposite of the official, academic styleCezanneA Modern Olympia c. 1873-74 William- AdolpheBouguereau The Birth of Venus(1879)CezanneThe Abduction(1867)
Cezanne PissarroThe Bridge at Maincy Small Bridge (1879-80) (1875)
Monet RenoirWater-Lily Pond Lakeside Landscape (1897) (1889)
Cezannes great contribution was that heinvented a new kind of space in painting.Previously space in painting wasRenaissance space - which was illusionalspace, linear perspective, trying to depictthe illusion of space on a two-dimensionalsurface.
In Cezannes paintings, even a simple apple might display a distinctly sculptural dimension. It is as if each item of still life, landscape, or portrait had been examined not from one but several or more angles, its material properties then recombined by the artist as no mere copy, but as what Cezanne called "a harmony parallel to nature." It was this aspect of Cezannes analytical, time- Cezanne based practice that led the future Cubists to regard himApples and Oranges (1882) their true mentor.
Modern art began with Manet and the discovery of flatness as a value in painting. It reached a new clarity of purpose with Cézanne and exploded into full existence in Picassos 1907 painting Les Demoiselles dAvignonCézanne Bibemus Quarry (1895)
Landmark changesin Picasso’s work,and early signs ofAfrican influencescan be seensimultaneously inhis 1907 painting,Les Demoisellesd’Avignon where adeparture fromclassic Western artstyles is clear.PicassoLes Demoiselles dAvignon(1907)
Picassos African-influencedPeriod - 1907 to 1909Picasso Head Dan Mask of a Woman (1907)
This inspiration to cross- reference art from different cultures probably came from Paul Gauguin, the French post-impressionist artist, whose paintings and prints were influenced by the native culture of Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands where he spent his final years.Paul GauguinNave, Nave Moe (Miraculous Source) 1894
“Neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act ofaccumulation and acquisition… Out of imperialism, notionsabout culture were classified, reinforced, criticised orrejected.”Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism Pitt Rivers Museum
“Many people neveracknowledge how their day-to-day behaviors have beenshaped by cultural normsand values and reinforced byfamilies, peers, and socialinstitutions. How onedefines ‘family’, identifiesdesirable life goals, viewsproblems, and even sayshello are all influenced bythe culture in which onefunctions”(Cross, 1988, p.2).
Picasso first encountered formsof African art around the turn ofthe twentieth century when‘exotic’ items were imported bysailors from French occupiedAfrica and displayed in Europeanmuseums. From here onevidence of the appropriation ofelements of African art can befound in Picasso’s work, andoften with apatronisingprimitivist viewtypical of the mind set of thisEuropean avant-garde
Picasso‟s appropriation of the African mask is one example of hybridforms of expression that beg, borrow and steal from elsewhere. In doingso they raise the question about the significance of power relations indoing so. Picasso Picasso Mask from Baule Anonymous Woman with Sitting Nude in Ivory Coast artist, South Joined Hands (1908) Africa (1906)
Woman’s Head Woman in an Armchair Negro Dancer (1909) (1909-1910) (1937)
The poet Guillaume Apollinaire inPicasso’s atelier, 1910 – by Picasso
Cubism - the first style of abstract art Cubism gave rise to Abstract art, which removed the object from painting all together Braque PicassoViolin and Candlestick L’Aficionado (1910) (1912)
Picasso and Braque Go to theMovies (Dir. Arne Glimcher, 2010)proposes that:•Cubism, the revolutionaryabstract painting and collage stylepioneered by Pablo Picasso andGeorges Braque, grew out of areaction to cinema•the neutral tones anddeconstructed forms that definedCubist painting were an attemptto convey motion in the mannerof a film’s rolling celluloid
Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon(1907) The serpentine dance of Loïe Fuller (1896)
http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2005/cezannepissarro/Miller, Arthur I. Einstein, Picasso: Space, Time, and the Beauty That CausesHavoc http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/m/miller-01einstein.html
Cultural MappingPersonal Representations of Art and Art History
This exercise is meant to make you conscious ofyour own perspective and knowledge aboutModern Art.The first stage is relatively open-endedbrainstorming.The exercise helps with externalizing your ownpatterns of thought so you can, in turn, thinkabout them, make connections amongst them,and find the gaps between them.
This is taken from JamesElkin’s concept of Ideas Mapping. Here are a fewof his examples:
Here are some examples from previous students on theIntroduction to Modernism course to help get you started