• Taking their name from Claude Monets Impression, Sunrise, the Impressionists were established in Paris during the 1870s •The artists did not record nature as static and unchanging but sought to reflect its constant movement and natural pulse. In a rejection of the age-old principles of academic painting -Claude Monet stillness, symmetry, order, andImpression, soleillevant (Impression, Sunrise)1873 cleanliness
CAMILLE PISSARRO Le Boulevard Montmartre, effet de nuit(The Boulevard Montmartre at Night) (1897)Impressionism was a radical and deliberate break with classical artforms, and it set the pace for many of the styles of the twentiethcentury. The world of the Impressionists was an entirely subjectiveone. They were not concerned with painting what was (the objectiveworld), but what they experienced (the subjective world).TheImpressionists were the first group of artists to self-consciouslychallenge the Western view of objective reality.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir Le Moulin de la Galette 1876 DegasBallet Rehearsal
Georges Seurat (1859-1891) The Channel at Gravelines, Evening Paul Gauguin Tahitian Landscape (1893)Impressionism became seminalto various movements inpainting which followed,including Neo-Impressionism,Post-Impressionism, Fauvism,and Cubism.
Subjectivity and pictorial surface were emphasized at the expense of illusion.It is revolutionary because it is an demonstrates that images were beingunderstood by artist as self-aware representations, with their representationalstatus encoded within the mode of production.
Manet took Courbets realism one step further, so blurring the boundary between objectivity and subjectivity that painting has never recovered from his quiet revolution. After Impressionism, art can never return to a dependence upon a world that exists "out there" apart from the individual artist.ManetLe DéjeunersurlHerbe(1863)
BERTHE MORISOT PAUL CÉZANNESummer day (1879) Mount Sainte-Victoire view from Lauves (1904- MARY CASSATT 06) Summertime (1894) Truthfulness for the Impressionists lay in their personal and subjective sensations not in the“exact” reproduction of an object for its own sake. The objectivity of things existing outside andbeyond the artist no longer mattered as much as it once did. Concern for representing anobject faded, while concern for representing the subjective grew. The focus on subjectivityintensified because artists became more concerned with the independent expression of theindividual. Reality became what the individual saw. With Impressionism, the meaning ofrealism was transformed into subjective realism, and the subjectivity of modem art was born.
It has been suggested that impressionism was a ‘primitive’ wayof looking at the world, that impressionists chose to ‘forget’ theiroptical art school training and – line, perspective, colour – andpaint ‘simply as they saw’Has been regarded as vivid glimpses of emotion and emotionallycharged objects that represent only the artist’s own subjectivity –not the object itselfIt has been suggested that impressionists eliminated culturalinfluence (particularly artistic conventions), but that it is notwholly possible since no one can completely escape cultureinfluence
It has been asserted that impressionism does not allow culturalconventions to rule their art and that they made a consciouseffort to render the object as it actually appears at a specificmomentIt has been argued that impressionism represents the artist’ssubjectivity, but does not simply represent the artist’s emotionalresponse to an object – instead, subject and object arelinked, and their relationship is uniquely contextualised , aindividual experience that connects subject, object, andsurrounding circumstances in an interdependent event
Manet A Bar at the Folies- Bergère (1882)This painting literally captivates/captures the you — in the relationbetween your position and gaze, the girl and the mirror.Manet has understood the meaning of selfhood: it is to be situated innegotation with other subjects within modes of representation.
• An emphasis on impressionism and; anemphasis on HOW seeing, or perceptionitself,takes place, rather than on WHAT isperceived• A tendency toward reflexivity, or self-consciousness, about the production of thework of art, so that each piece calls attentionto its own status as a production, assomething constructed and consumed inparticular ways
“As philosophy had moved from unity to a fragmentation, this fragmentation was carried into the field of painting. The fragmentation shown in Post Impressionist paintings was parallel to the loss of hope for a unity of knowledge in philosophy. It was not just a new technique in painting. ItVan Gogh expressed a new worldview.”Starry Night Over the Rhone(1883) (Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live? Francis Schaeffer p.197)
“For a century that questioned the very concept of absolute truth, Cubism created an artistic language of intentional ambiguity.” (Robert Rosenbloom, Cubism and Twentieth Century Art, p. 9)PicassoLes Demoiselles dAvignon(1907)