CULTURAL TURNS<br />
Defining Culture<br />Everything humans perceive, know, think value and feel is learned through participating in a cultura...
Culture<br /><ul><li> A hotly contested concept
 Rules and conventions that govern social behaviour
 Material artefacts that societies utilise and produce when they are going about the business of daily life
 An abstraction that exists only in the mind </li></li></ul><li>EP Thompson ‘Culture is that complex whole which includes ...
Culture and Society<br />Culture and society are not the same thing.  While cultures are complexes of learned behavior pat...
Things that strike us as ‘natural’ or ‘normal’ or ‘common sense’ or ‘human nature’ are often cultural<br />Bruce Nauman<br...
Archaeologists can not dig up culture directly in their excavations.  The broken pots and other artifacts of ancient peopl...
Culture: The complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art,<br /> morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities an...
Characteristics of culture<br />1. It is learned behaviour. Formal training is part of it, but probably the<br />most impo...
Globalization refers to the increasing connectedness of the world and its peoples<br />
Cultural imperialism refers to the spread of one culture at the expense of others usually because of differential economic...
As with mass media, the flow of capital has become decentralized, carrying with it the cultural influences of many differe...
“Many people never acknowledge how their day-to-day behaviors have been shaped by cultural norms and values and reinforced...
Anthropology<br />Contemporary anthropologists do not agree on a definition of culture<br />Some definitions stress the ma...
Characteristics all cultures share<br />Made up of learned behaviours<br />Learning culture is continuous process<br />Cul...
Cultures are Adaptive<br />Cultures contain information about how to survive on the world<br />Cultures also contain infor...
Culture Change<br />Cultural change may result from internal dynamics or by outside forces<br />Slang words are one indica...
Cultural  Change<br />Change can occur as a result of both invention within a society as well as the diffusion of cultural...
All cultural knowledge does not perpetually accumulate. At the same time that new cultural traits are added, some old ones...
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Cultural Turns

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  • A problematic conceptIntegral to study of identitycultural situatedness, cultural pursuits and practices shape our sense of self Culture has material effects
  • Defining CultureThe word culture has many different meanings.  For some it refers to an appreciation of good literature, music, art, and food.  For a biologist, it is likely to be a colony of bacteria or other microorganisms growing in a laboratory Petri dish.  However, for anthropologists and other behavioral scientists, culture is the full range of learned human behavior patterns. And it is an anthropological framework that we will view culture through today.The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward B. Tylor in his book, Primitive Culture, published in 1871.  Tylor said that culture is &quot;that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.&quot; 
  • EP Thompson ‘Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Thompson 1871).A broad definition thathighlights the notion that culture is something that is learned and something that is shared.
  • Culture and society are not the same thing.  While cultures are complexes of learned behavior patterns and perceptions, societies are groups of interacting organisms.  People are not the only animals that have societies.  Schools of fish, flocks of birds, and hives of bees are societies.  In the case of humans, however, societies are groups of people who directly or indirectly interact with each other.  People in human societies also generally perceive that their society is distinct from other societies in terms of shared traditions and expectations.While human societies and cultures are not the same thing, they are inextricably connected because culture is created and transmitted to others in a society.  Cultures are not the product of lone individuals.  They are the continuously evolving products of people interacting with each other.  Cultural patterns such as language and politics make no sense except in terms of the interaction of people.  If you were the only human on earth, there would be no need for language or government.Raymond Williams was the founding father of cultural studies‘culture includes the organisation of production, the structure of the family the structure of institutions which express or govern social relationships, the characteristic forms through which members of society communicate’
  • Things that strike us as ‘natural’ or ‘normal’ or ‘common sense’ or ‘human nature’ are often culturalFrom social anthropology to present day cultures and subcultures, leisure activities and shopping, football hooliganism, the political culture of groups and organisations - just a few of the areas that the intellectual tradition that has become known as cultural studies have become interested in The way that we interact and do things in our everyday lives seems &quot;natural&quot; to us.  We are unaware of our culture because we are so close to it and know it so well.  For most people, it is as if their learned behavior was biologically inherited.  It is usually only when they come into contact with people from another culture that they become aware that their patterns of behavior are not universal.
  • Culture is a powerful human tool for survival, but it is a fragile phenomenon.  It is constantly changing and easily lost because it exists only in our minds.  Our written languages, governments, buildings, and other man-made things are merely the products of culture.  They are not culture in themselves.  For this reason, archaeologists can not dig up culture directly in their excavations.  The broken pots and other artifacts of ancient people that they uncover are only material remains that reflect cultural patterns--they are things that were made and used through cultural knowledge and skills.
  • Culture: The complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.1.The most isolated bits of behaviour have some systematic relation to each other.2. Culture is a design for livingAn approved way of meeting certain situations, of sizing them up.3. These solutions are regarded as the foundations of theuniverse. We integrate these values into our daily lives, no matter whatthe difficulties.4. Some degree of consistency is necessary, otherwise the whole scheme falls apart. 5. To try to keep some part of our lives fenced off where we live by another set of values risks inefficiency and chaos.
  • Characteristics of culture:1. It is learned behaviour. Formal training is part of it, but probably themost important part is informal, unconscious, almost unintended.2. Culture is shared with others - it is the common property of a society.3. Culture influences the ways in which needs are met.Differences in culture will affect the ways in which cultures structuretheir organizations, whether economic, political, military or other.At the same time differences in culture will generate and legitimatedifferent patterns of interaction among members of a group ororganization, and will legitimate particular patterns of authorityrelationships.
  • Advertising is the Most effective device for popular culture diffusion
  • mass media and related technology have contributed to the erosion of local culturesCultural forms exported from one culture to another do not necessarily carry the same meaning from the former context to the latter context.Cultural imperialism refers to the spread of one culture at the expense of others usually because of differential economic or political influenceCurrently, domination comes most frequently in the form of core-based multinational corporations causing economic change in Third World cultures.Postmodernity describes our time and situation--today’s world in flux, these people on the move who have learned to manage multiple identities depending on place and context.Postmodern refers to the collapsing of old distinctions, rules, canons, and the like.Postmodernism (derived from the architectural style) refers to the theoretical assertion and acceptance of multiple forms of rightness, in contradistinction to modernism, which was based in the assumed supremacy of Western technology and values.
  • As with mass media, the flow of capital has become decentralized, carrying with it the cultural influences of many different sources (e.g., the United States, Japan, Britain, Canada, Germany).Migrant labor also contributes to cultural diffusion.Living in a global village - we borrow from other cultures - food/music/clothes
  • “Many people never acknowledge how their day-to-day behaviors have been shaped by cultural norms and values and reinforced by families, peers, and social institutions. How one defines ‘family’, identifies desirable life goals, views problems, and even says hello are all influenced by the culture in which one functions”The common response in all societies to other cultures is to judge them in terms of the values and customs of their own familiar culture.  This is ethnocentrismThe belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.The tendency of most people to use their own way of life as a standard for judging others; now also indicates the belief, on the part of most individuals, that their race, culture, society, etc., are superior to all others
  • Contemporary anthropologists do not agree on a definition of cultureSome definitions stress the materialist side of culture and others stress the idealist side of cultureAnthropology is a social science, humanities and scienceAnthropologists do agree on characteristics of culture
  • Characteristics all cultures shareMade up of learned behavioursLearning culture is continuous processCultures are learned through the process of enculturationThey involve the use of language and symbols - things that stand for something elseElements of culture have some logical relationship to one anotherIn some ways, members of a culture share values and normsThe way people learn to interact with one another is culturalTypes and expression of emotions are culturalHuman infants come into the world with basic drives such as hunger and thirst, but they do not possess instinctive patterns of behavior to satisfy them.  Likewise, they are without any cultural knowledge.  However, they are genetically predisposed to rapidly learn language and other cultural traits. Since culture is non-instinctive, we are not genetically programmed to learn a particular one.Learning cultureHumans depend on learned and taught behaviour more than any other speciesNo other species has as lengthy of a period of childhood learning as humansEach society has both formal and informal means of enculturation or transmitting its cultureTacit and Explicit Cultural KnowledgeSociety is culturally reproduced as well as biologically reproduced
  • Cultures contain information about how to survive on the worldCultures also contain information about what is maladaptive (not providing adequate or appropriate adjustment to the environment or situation) e.g. binge drinking
  • The Oxford English Dictionary is constantly updating, adding new words to reflect the vibrant changes in language and culture.
  • The 1960s saw the birth of the teenager and life was never the same again. It was the start of a social and sexual revolution This revolution was partly a reaction to the austerity of the post war years, increased prosperity and spending power, and advances in technology and science.Young people woke up to the idea that that they could have an identity and lifestyle different from their parents. Teenagers started to break free from the traditions and rules of previous generations in fashion, lifestyle and sexual behaviour. They wanted their own music, clothes and freedom to do their own thing.The Teenage BoomIn the early 19th century teenagers were treated as &apos;big children&apos; or &apos;little adults&apos; but this was to change from the 1950s and 60s.SubculturesA system of perception, values, beliefs and customs that are significantly different from those of a larger dominant culture within the same society
  • All cultural knowledge does not perpetually accumulate.  At the same time that new cultural traits are added, some old ones are lost because they are no longer useful.  For example, most city dwellers today do not have or need the skills required for survival in a wilderness.  Most would very likely starve to death because they do not know how to acquire wild foods and survive the extremes of weather outdoors.  What is more important in modern urban life are such things as the ability to drive a car, use a computer, and understand how to obtain food in a supermarket or restaurant.The regular addition and subtraction of cultural traits results in culture change.  All cultures change over time--none is static.  However, the rate of change and the aspects of culture that change varies from society to society.
  • Language works because we have a shared set of concepts and common understandingsThe principles which govern language also organise other symbolic forms of communication Some objects, although apparently similar have very different symbolic values and we understand their symbolic value because they are part of a system of rich symbols Anything that exists or has existed and was used by a group of people can be an artifact.Each artifact tells us something about the culture we are examining.Our own viewpoints can change what the artifact was actually used for.We see the artifact through our cultural eyes.Our visual perception is shaped by our culture and society. The way we see depends upon the way we live. Our social actions are influenced by our visual perception. The way we act depends upon the way we see.This means that the visual dimension of our everyday lives is socially significant
  • Transcript of "Cultural Turns"

    1. 1. CULTURAL TURNS<br />
    2. 2. Defining Culture<br />Everything humans perceive, know, think value and feel is learned through participating in a cultural system<br />The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward B. Tylor in his book, Primitive Culture, published in 1871.  Tylor said that culture is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." <br />
    3. 3. Culture<br /><ul><li> A hotly contested concept
    4. 4. Rules and conventions that govern social behaviour
    5. 5. Material artefacts that societies utilise and produce when they are going about the business of daily life
    6. 6. An abstraction that exists only in the mind </li></li></ul><li>EP Thompson ‘Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Thompson 1871).<br />A broad definition that<br />highlights the notion that culture is something that is learned and something that is shared.<br />
    7. 7. Culture and Society<br />Culture and society are not the same thing.  While cultures are complexes of learned behavior patterns and perceptions, societies are groups of interacting organisms.<br />Raymond Williams was the founding father of cultural studies<br />‘culture includes the organisation of production, the structure of the family the structure of institutions which express or govern social relationships, the characteristic forms through which members of society communicate’<br />
    8. 8. Things that strike us as ‘natural’ or ‘normal’ or ‘common sense’ or ‘human nature’ are often cultural<br />Bruce Nauman<br />Human Nature/Knows Doesn't Know 1983/6<br />
    9. 9. Archaeologists can not dig up culture directly in their excavations.  The broken pots and other artifacts of ancient people that they uncover are only material remains that reflect cultural patterns--they are things that were made and used through cultural knowledge and skills.<br />
    10. 10. Culture: The complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art,<br /> morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired<br /> by individuals as members of society.<br />1.The most isolated bits of behaviour have some systematic relation<br /> to each other.<br />2. Culture is a design for living<br />An approved way of meeting certain situations, of sizing them up.<br />3. These solutions are regarded as the foundations of the<br />universe. We integrate these values into our daily lives, no matter what<br />the difficulties.<br />4. Some degree of consistency is necessary, otherwise the whole scheme falls apart. <br />5. To try to keep some part of our lives fenced off where we live by another set of values risks inefficiency and chaos.<br />
    11. 11. Characteristics of culture<br />1. It is learned behaviour. Formal training is part of it, but probably the<br />most important part is informal, unconscious, almost unintended.<br />2. Culture is shared with others - it is the common property of a society.<br />3. Culture influences the ways in which needs are met. <br />
    12. 12. Globalization refers to the increasing connectedness of the world and its peoples<br />
    13. 13. Cultural imperialism refers to the spread of one culture at the expense of others usually because of differential economic or political influence<br />
    14. 14. As with mass media, the flow of capital has become decentralized, carrying with it the cultural influences of many different sources (e.g., the United States, Japan, Britain, Canada, Germany).<br />Migrant labor also contributes to cultural diffusion.<br />
    15. 15. “Many people never acknowledge how their day-to-day behaviors have been shaped by cultural norms and values and reinforced by families, peers, and social institutions. How one defines ‘family’, identifies desirable life goals, views problems, and even says hello are all influenced by the culture in which one functions”<br /> (Cross, 1988, p.2).<br />
    16. 16. Anthropology<br />Contemporary anthropologists do not agree on a definition of culture<br />Some definitions stress the materialist side of culture and others stress the idealist side of culture<br />Anthropology is a social science, humanities and science<br />Anthropologists do agree on characteristics of culture<br />
    17. 17. Characteristics all cultures share<br />Made up of learned behaviours<br />Learning culture is continuous process<br />Cultures are learned through the process of enculturation<br />They involve the use of language and symbols - things that stand for something else<br />
    18. 18. Cultures are Adaptive<br />Cultures contain information about how to survive on the world<br />Cultures also contain information about what is maladaptive (not providing adequate or appropriate adjustment to the environment or situation) e.g. binge drinking<br />
    19. 19. Culture Change<br />Cultural change may result from internal dynamics or by outside forces<br />Slang words are one indication of cultural change<br />
    20. 20. Cultural Change<br />Change can occur as a result of both invention within a society as well as the diffusion of cultural traits from one society to another.  Predicting whether a society will adopt new cultural traits or abandon others is complicated by the fact that the various aspects of a culture are closely interwoven into a complex pattern.<br />The 1960s saw the birth of the teenager and life was never the same again. It was the start of a social and sexual revolution <br />
    21. 21. All cultural knowledge does not perpetually accumulate. At the same time that new cultural traits are added, some old ones are lost because they are no longer useful.<br />
    22. 22. The Evolution of Language <br />=)<br />:0<br />=(<br />
    23. 23. Interactive Culture Quiz <br />http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/quizzes/Culquiz1.htm<br />

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