What is appropriation? readymade d eto urnement pastiche rephotography recombination simulation parody replicating remixing adaptation bricolage collage fake faux mimesis montage plagiarism recycling simulacrum
Some defining factors include:
-The deliberate reproduction of (elements of) another’s work
‘ Copying’ for your own artistic expression
It involves adopting intellectual property from elsewhere
It borrows images,styles,or forms from art history or popular culture
This ‘movement’ evolved in the 1960s and peaked in the ‘80s
What is Appropriation?
http://www. eclecticmethod .net/biography/ In music, appropriation is the use of borrowed elements (aspects or techniques) in the creation of a new piece.
Schwartz investigates most varieties of simulacra, including counterfeits, decoys, mannequins, ditto marks, portraits, genetic cloning, war games, camouflage, instant replays, digital imaging, parrots, photocopies, wax museums, apes, art forgeries, not to mention the very notion of the Real McCoy. The culture of the copy
REPRODUCTION We are all simultaneously copies and copying machines, surrounded by a world of copies, and yet we feel the the incessant need to distinguish, to be unique, to differentiate ourselves, to find the authentic and to create the original
Debord : “T h e spectacle is not a collection of images, but a social relation among people, mediated by images. ”
‘ Ap propriation, pastiche, quotation - these methods can now be seen to extend to virtually every aspect of our culture, from the most calculated products of the fashion and entertainment industries to the most committed critical activities of artists … ’ CRIMP, DOUGLAS. Appropriating Appropriation, in HERTZ, RICHARD. (ed) Theories of Contemporary Art, Prentice Hall Inc, USA, 1985
The practice of copying another existing artwork is often identified with the formative years of an artist. Copying old masters has traditionally been part of the training to become a fine artist. You could therefore assume that Appropriation Art merely widens this good practice to contemporary or at least modern artworks.
There is a clear distinction between Appropriation Art and forgery. Forgers intend to deceive, Appropriation Artists openly show their authorship and the fact that the work is a copy of another artists work.
Picasso, ‘Guitar’, 1913 As a term in art history and criticism ‘Appropriation’ refers to the direct taking over into a work of art of a real object or even an existing work of art. The practice can be traced back to the Cubist collages and constructions of Picasso and Georges Braque made from 1912 onwards, in which real objects such as newspapers were included to represent themselves. Antecedents of Appropriation Art
Appropriation was developed much further in the readymades created by the French artist Marcel Duchamp from 1917. Most notorious of these was Fountain, a men's urinal signed, titled, and presented on a pedestal. Antecedents of Appropriation Art
The great exemplar of the appropriationist painterly attitude was Andy Warhol, with his use of existing commercial and media images in the early 1960s.
However, the term seems to have come into use specifically in relation to certain American artists in the 1980s, notably Sherrie Levine and the artists of the Neo-Geo group particularly Jeff Koons.
Sherrie Levine, After Monet, 1983 Sherrie Levine, Self-Portrait After Egon Schiele, 1981
Appropriation artists were influenced by the 1934 essay by the German philosopher Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, and received contemporary support from the American critic Rosalind Krauss in her 1985 book The Originality of the Avant-Garde and Other Modernist Myths .
Appropriation is and exploration of signification, originality, appropriation, authorship and deconstruction. The term ‘simulacrum’, drawn from the writings of the French philosopher Jean Baudrillard, is often used to signify this idea of representation as reality. For Postmodernists nothing we can say or do is truly ‘original’, for our thoughts are constructed from our experience of a lifetime of representation, so it is naive to imagine a work’s author inventing its forms or controlling its meaning. Instead of pretending to an authorities originality, postmodernism concentrates on the way images and symbols (‘signifiers’) shift or lose their meaning when put in different contexts (‘appropriated’), revealing (‘deconstructing’) the processes by which meaning is constructed.
Barthes extended this concept of ‘The Death of the Author’ to question the very possibility of originality and authenticity, he stated that any text (or image), rather than emitting a fixed meaning from a singular voice, was but a tissue of quotations that were themselves references to yet other texts, and so on.
Richard Prince's work should be seen in the context of the ideas of French philosopher Roland Barthes. In the age of multiple meanings and mechanical reproduction, Barthes argued there are no more authors, just editors working with existing ideas to create a new voice. Prince's habit of rephotographing existing photographs, initiated in the late 1970's, helped spawn the appropriation craze of the 80's. The artist himself is best known for his deadpan recycling of magazine and newspaper images that range through the highs and lows of popular culture. References to sex, drugs, rock-and- roll, alcoholism and the movies frequently give his efforts a dark and familiar undercurrent. But his relentless replication of found images also has its esoteric side and continually questions definitions of art, originality and artistic technique.
Creating a new cultural understanding Marlboro Man’s ever self-reliant cowboy, Prince understood that isolating and removing mass-culture imagery offered an opportunity to examine various codes of representation including gender and class. By re-contextualizing them by severe cropping or removing any ad copy or simply by re-photographing a black and white image on colour film, the artist found ways to blur meaning and to create a critical dialogue with the objects created to satisfy the perceived needs of the expanding American consumer.
Richard Prince Appropriation artists embraced the undermining of authorship, making free play with the vast repertory of images and styles available to them through reproduction. With the concept of originality becoming hackneyed and outmoded they built their practice around quotation and appropriation.
Julian Schnabel, ‘The Exile’, 1980
Mike Bidlo, installation, 2003 Biblo is another artist who uses appropriation of existing imagery and ruptures it from the original antecedents.
"As far as I'm concerned I'm painting things from real life. Like a painter going out and painting the landscape and the buildings, these paintings that I use do already exist and they are part of my life, my education and my way of understanding the world is through art," The Independent: A real scene stealer: Glenn Brown's 'second-hand' art is the subject of a Tate retrospective: Jonathan Brown, Monday, 16 February 2009
Frank Auerbach Glenn Brown Giuseppe Arcimboldo "Vertumnus"(portrait of Rudolph II), ca. 1590.
Makers and Takers Gillian Wearing, (1992),Signs that say what you want them to say not signs that say what someone else wants you to say
Douglas Gordon's 24 Hour Psycho
Copying or Transforming
Who is the ‘author’ of the image that Shepard Fairey used as the source for the Obama HOPE prints?