Tracking Ph Level’s of Food Preferred by  Physarum Polycephalum <ul><li>Deborah Belew, Lisa Green, Allison Janecko, Bethan...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>What is Physarum Polycephalum? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True slime mold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life ...
We believe that Physarum polycephalum will seek out the oat mixtures that are most neutral in Ph level. HYPOTHESIS
METHODS <ul><li>Tested several items for Ph level utilizing Ph testing strips provided by the lab </li></ul><ul><li>Select...
PH LEVELS Table 1 :  Examples displaying range of Ph levels
<ul><li>Used a set ratio (Table 2) of oats and variable ingredient in each mixture </li></ul>METHODS CONTINUED Table 2: Ra...
MILK OF MAGNESIA <ul><li>Ph level 10  </li></ul><ul><li>Active ingredient:  </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium hydroxide  </li></...
HOT SAUCE <ul><li>Ph level 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients: </li></ul><ul><li>Peppers, vinegar, and salt </li></ul>(Louisi...
SILK SOY MILK  <ul><li>Ph level 7.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients:  </li></ul><ul><li>filtered water, whole organic soybea...
SCOPE <ul><li>Ph level 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients: </li></ul><ul><li>15%WT/V  </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerin, Ethanol SD ...
SUNNY MEADOW EGGS    <ul><li>Ph level 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional facts: </li></ul><ul><li>calories 90 </li></ul><ul><...
WATER (control) <ul><li>Ph level 7 (neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition Facts : </li></ul><ul><li>Calories 0 </li></ul><u...
PH LEVELS OF ITEMS
<ul><li>Does not have an apparent preference for either acids or bases thus far. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide to start 2 new e...
Appears to prefer the egg/oats sample thus far Why?  What does each part  of the egg contain? Decide to  separate the yolk...
<ul><li>New Results </li></ul><ul><li>In soy milk vs. egg: </li></ul><ul><li>Slime mold went directly to the egg </li></ul...
EGG YOLK VS. EGG WHITE <ul><li>Egg white structure: </li></ul><ul><li>  7/8 water, 1/8 protein, o fat, niacin, riboflavin,...
Data suggests that the ph level of the “food” does not entice the slime mold to select it as much as the nutrients availab...
TABLE 2: Data showing Ph levels & whether the slime mold preferred or disapproved of that item. Figure 2:  Hot sauce vs. S...
What do eggs contain that the other bases tested did not?  Eggs become more alkaline in pH level as they age according to ...
<ul><li>Choose several different types, grades, ages of eggs and egg substitutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Select cleaner agar Pe...
http://food.oregonstate.edu/learn/egg.html   ,  Date accessed 12/2/08 REFERENCES http:// www.baking911.com , Date accessed...
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Observe and determine Ph level of food slime molds prefer.

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  1. 1. Tracking Ph Level’s of Food Preferred by Physarum Polycephalum <ul><li>Deborah Belew, Lisa Green, Allison Janecko, Bethany Mackan, </li></ul><ul><li>Jessica Schleifer and Chris Wilkin </li></ul><ul><li>Kent State University Stark Campus, Department of Biological Sciences, North Canton ,Ohio USA </li></ul>
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>What is Physarum Polycephalum? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True slime mold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does it obtain food? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does Physarum polycephalum typically prefer food that is acidic or basic? </li></ul><ul><li>Our question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a choice in a controlled environment, would it prefer acidic, basic, or neutral foods? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. We believe that Physarum polycephalum will seek out the oat mixtures that are most neutral in Ph level. HYPOTHESIS
  4. 4. METHODS <ul><li>Tested several items for Ph level utilizing Ph testing strips provided by the lab </li></ul><ul><li>Selected 5 items with varying Ph levels (Table 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained a culture sample of Physarum polycephalum from culture dish provided by the lab </li></ul><ul><li>Removed a 1 square cm section from culture. Used test tube caps initially to cut out sections then utilized scalpel for transfer to new dish. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed contamination with Dr. Bernstein. Decided transferring the slime mold with the sterilized scalpel provided less contamination. Kept dishes exposure to air to a minimum by uncovering dishes only during transfer. </li></ul>
  5. 5. PH LEVELS Table 1 : Examples displaying range of Ph levels
  6. 6. <ul><li>Used a set ratio (Table 2) of oats and variable ingredient in each mixture </li></ul>METHODS CONTINUED Table 2: Ratio of ingredients <ul><li>Set up Petrie dishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 different samples in each dish each time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved 3 pathways in agar from center to each sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained a “control” sample within each of water/oats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dish stored in drawer for 2 – 4 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recorded data in journal & discussed next step </li></ul>1/8 tsp water 1/8 tsp of item A ½ tsp oats 1/8 tsp water 1/8 tsp of item B ½ tsp oats ¼ tsp water ½ tsp oats
  7. 7. MILK OF MAGNESIA <ul><li>Ph level 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Active ingredient: </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive Ingredients: </li></ul><ul><li>citric acid, D&C red#28, glycerin, sorbitol, sucrose, water, xanthan, gum. </li></ul>(Medicinenet, 2008)
  8. 8. HOT SAUCE <ul><li>Ph level 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients: </li></ul><ul><li>Peppers, vinegar, and salt </li></ul>(Louisiana Pepper, 2008)
  9. 9. SILK SOY MILK <ul><li>Ph level 7.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients: </li></ul><ul><li>filtered water, whole organic soybeans, organic evaporated cane juice, calcium carbonate, natural vanilla flavor, sea salt, carrageen, vitamin A, palmitate, vitamin D2, riboflavin (B2), vitamin B12 </li></ul><ul><li>(http://www.silksoymilk.com/Products/SilkSoymilkRefrigerated.aspx) </li></ul>
  10. 10. SCOPE <ul><li>Ph level 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients: </li></ul><ul><li>15%WT/V </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerin, Ethanol SD 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Benzoic Acid & Sodium Benzoate (act as buffers) </li></ul><ul><li>Cetylpyridinium chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Saccharin </li></ul><ul><li>Domiphen Bromide </li></ul><ul><li>FD&C Yellow # 5, FD&C Blue #1, water </li></ul>(Household Products, 2008)
  11. 11. SUNNY MEADOW EGGS   <ul><li>Ph level 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional facts: </li></ul><ul><li>calories 90 </li></ul><ul><li>total fat 5g </li></ul><ul><li>saturated fat 2g </li></ul><ul><li>cholesterol 270mg </li></ul><ul><li>sodium 80mg </li></ul><ul><li>carbohydrates 1g </li></ul><ul><li>diet fiber 0g </li></ul><ul><li>protein 8g </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( ( www.dailyplate.com ) , Eggs Grade A)   </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. WATER (control) <ul><li>Ph level 7 (neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition Facts : </li></ul><ul><li>Calories 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Fat 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul>(Calorie Count, 2008)
  13. 13. PH LEVELS OF ITEMS
  14. 14. <ul><li>Does not have an apparent preference for either acids or bases thus far. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide to start 2 new experiments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One with “likes” from test 1 & 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Egg/oats, hot sauce/oats) & water/oats neutral control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One with “dislikes” from test 1 & 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(water/oats, scope/oats) & water/oats neutral control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In the dish containing the “dislikes” it appears to travel along the side of the agar path and settle on the neutral water/oat sample. This data suggests that it does not like the base or the acid. </li></ul><ul><li>In the dish containing the “likes” our slime mold appears to have moved directly to the egg/oats sample. </li></ul>RESULTS
  15. 15. Appears to prefer the egg/oats sample thus far Why? What does each part of the egg contain? Decide to separate the yolk from the albumen & test the slime mold’s preference for either. Figure 1: Diagram of egg structure ( wicker.myweb.uga.edu/eggs ) Also run another test : Soy milk vs. egg Reassure the preference for the egg as opposed to the preference for oats mixed with any base, as milk & egg both test as bases.
  16. 16. <ul><li>New Results </li></ul><ul><li>In soy milk vs. egg: </li></ul><ul><li>Slime mold went directly to the egg </li></ul><ul><li>In yolk vs. egg: </li></ul><ul><li>Slime mold went directly to the yolk as opposed to the water/oats or albumen/oats mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the slime mold prefer egg </li></ul><ul><li>yolk over egg white ? </li></ul>
  17. 17. EGG YOLK VS. EGG WHITE <ul><li>Egg white structure: </li></ul><ul><li> 7/8 water, 1/8 protein, o fat, niacin, riboflavin, chlorine, magnesium, potassium, sodium and sulfur.  </li></ul><ul><li>Egg yolk structure: </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 water, 1/6 protein, 1/3 fat, emulsifiers (lecithin), vitamins A,D and E </li></ul>Figure 2: Grades of eggs (The United States Department of Agriculture, 2006)
  18. 18. Data suggests that the ph level of the “food” does not entice the slime mold to select it as much as the nutrients available. END RESULTS Figure 3: Nutritional Daily Allowance Pyramid (www.ams.usda.gov)
  19. 19. TABLE 2: Data showing Ph levels & whether the slime mold preferred or disapproved of that item. Figure 2: Hot sauce vs. Scope Figure 3: Contamination Variable Ph level Slime Mold Preferred? Soy milk 8 no Milk of magnesia 10 no Scope 5 no Hot Sauce 3 yes Egg (scrambled) 8 yes Egg yolk 6 yes Albumen ( Egg white) 7.6 no
  20. 20. What do eggs contain that the other bases tested did not? Eggs become more alkaline in pH level as they age according to Oregon State University. How would the slime mold react to freshly laid eggs opposed to store bought eggs? Would Physarum polycephalum react differently to egg substitutes? Did bacteria on the egg have a role in the outcome of the experiment? Would maintaining a cooler temperature thwart bacterial growth & harbor a different result? NEW QUESTIONS
  21. 21. <ul><li>Choose several different types, grades, ages of eggs and egg substitutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Select cleaner agar Petrie dishes </li></ul><ul><li>Study samples under several different temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Increase our quantity of sample dishes </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the time exposed to air </li></ul><ul><li>Take samples from the same initial culture </li></ul>NEXT STEPS
  22. 22. http://food.oregonstate.edu/learn/egg.html , Date accessed 12/2/08 REFERENCES http:// www.baking911.com , Date accessed 2008 http://www.dailyplate.com , The Daily Plate website for nutritional and dieting information “ Nutritional Information on the Egg, Date accessed 11/20/2008 Vadehra, D.V. and K.R. Nath. 1973. Eggs as a source of protein. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology 4: 193-309 http://lwicker.myweb.uga.edu/eggs_files/image004.jpg , Date accessed 11/30/08 The United States Department of Agriculture, “The United States Standard, Grades, and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs.” July 20, 2000. Date accessed 11/20/ 2008 http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/gtfile?dDocName=STELDEV3004376 “ Louisiana the Perfect Hot Sauce” Nutritional and diatary information. Date accessed 11/22/2008, www.louisianapepper.com “ Milk of Magnesia” Nutritional Drug information. Date accessed 11/26/2008, www.medicinenet.com/magnesium_hydroxide-oral/article.htm “ Scope: Oral Mouthwash” Nutrition and Ingredients. Date accessed 12/2/2008, www.householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov “ Silk Soy Milk”, Nutrition and Information page. Date accessed 12/2/2008,. www.silksoymilk.com/Products/SilkSoymilkRefrigerated.aspx

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