By Deborah Cleary
Dr. Judith Orth, Instructor
The Beginning Reader, K-3-EDUC-6706R-3
What is Literacy?
Dr. Gail Tompkins (2010) states, "that it is the
ability that a student acquires in both reading
and writing to do a variety of tasks at school and
outside of school ".
Getting to Know Literacy Learners.
• It is important for teachers to get to know their students and their
interests. Formal and informal assessments make it possible for
a teacher to discover this and a students weaknesses and
• By using the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (McKenna &
Kear, 1990), I was able to find out my students reading interests,
their likes and dislikes, and what I could do to motivate them in
• Selecting texts can be a challenge if a teacher is not aware of
what they need to be doing when it comes to their students and
• Texts need to be age and level appropriate.
• Texts need to be informative, linguistic, narrative or semiotic.
• Literacy Matrix is a tool that teachers can use that helps select
the appropriate texts for their students (Laureate Education,
• In the literacy matrix,
teachers place texts in
quadrants depending on if
they're narrative or
informational texts and if
they're more linguistic,
which is more word-driven,
or semiotic, which includes
more pictures than text.
According to Dr. Janice
Almasi, there are several
difficulty considerations to
take into account when
determining how challenging
a text will be for students.
Teachers should look at the
readability (sentence length,
number of syllables, etc.), the
text's length, its structure
etc.), its use of connective
words or signal words, the
size of the print, and the
visual support (Laureate
Research for Selecting Texts
• Students who are exposed to a variety of texts at
an early age tend to show growth at a quicker
rate in obtaining literacy skills (Tompkins, 2010).
What is Interactive Perspective?
• It is teaching children to read and write, accurately with fluency and
• Ultimate goal is to teach children how to be literate learners who
can navigate the textual world on their own.
• Activate student’s metacognition through teaching and lessons.
• Model own strategies and met cognition by using them to get
• Build a schema
• Use visuals. Example: Using a picture of a brain and explaining how
our brain has file folders in it to retain and regurgitate memory as
• Other sources: books, things studied school, family and friends,
television, and radio can be used.
One good strategy: Read Aloud
• Pick a book
• Prepare to share the book
• Introduce the book
• Read the book interactively
• Involve students in after-reading activities
What is Critical Perspective?
Teachers can help students to do this by asking questions related to
Questions students about:
• The author’s perspective
• Relate to the gender, race, social status
Give students opportunity to share and discuss
Critical perspective asks the students to evaluate, judge,
and critically examine a text in order to determine validity
(Laureate Education, 2011a).
When studying tall tales, the
students and I read a book
about Paul Bunyan. We had
an oral discussion about the
types of books that we have
been reading and what genre
the texts are. I incorporated
“Talking Drawings”. This gave
them a chance to draw a
mental image of what they
know or think about Paul
Bunyan and Babe.
What is Response Perspective?
• Response perspective is reading, reacting, and
responding to the text in many meaningful
ways (Laureate Education, 2011b).
• Students need to reflect on the meaning of
text and how it relates with their lives.
Make a Dent
• Ask questions
• Find out why?
• Have students orally respond
• Have them write journals
All three perspectives that have been
discussed in this course are important
when creating a literate environment
that is rich in teaching for the teacher
and learning and growing in reading
for the student.
Afflebach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G.(2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills
and reading strategies. Reading Teacher, 61 (5), 364-373
Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2011). Analyzing and selecting text. [Video webcast].
Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2011). Critical perspective [Video webcast]. Retrieved
Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2011). Response perspective. [Video webcast]. Retrieved
from https://class.waldenu.edu/ webapps/portal/frameset.jsp? tab_tab_group_id =_2
McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for
teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43(9), 626--639
Tompkins, G. E., (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: a balanced approach. (5th ed). Boston,
MA: Allyn & Bacon